Luther Leads The Reformation , Many of Luther's ideas were already…
Luther Leads The Reformation
The Response to Luther
Luther's idea spread and attracted many followers.
Church officials in Rome viewed luther as a rebellious monk.
The pope then realized that luther was a serious threat.
Luther suggests that christians drive the pope from the church by force.
Pope Leo X threatened Luther with excommunication unless he took back his statements.
Luther did not take back a single word.
He threw the pope's decree into the flames.
Leo excommunicated Luther
Charles V a devoted Catholic did not like Luther's teachings.
Charles issued an imperial order called the Edict of Worms
It declared luther as an outlaw and a heretic.
No one in the empire was to give luther food or shelter.
luther returned to wittenberg in 1522
Almost a year after the trial Prince Frederick sheltered luther in one of his castles.
They saw luther's protests as a way to challenge the church's control.
Why did luther's teachings become popular and attract followers?
Many people had been unhappy with the church for political and economic reasons.
England Becomes Protestant
Henry VIII Wants a Son
King Henry VIII was a devout Catholic at the beginning of his rein earning the nickname "Defender of the Faith"
Henry VIII feared that a war would start if he didn't have a son before he died. He had a daughter but no women had ever been on the throne.
Henry though his wife Catherine couldn't have more kids so he asked the Pope to annul his marriage
Why did Henry 8th need a divorce or an annulment?
The Pope refused to annul King Henry VIII's marriage because he didn't want to offen Catherine's powerful nephew, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
The Reformation Parliament
Henry decided to call Parliament together to pass a law that ended the Pope's power in England. "Reformation Parliament"
In 1534 Henry's break of the church was completed when parliament approved the Act of Supremacy saying Henry was the official head of England's church.
People like Thomas More remained loyal to the Pope go imprisoned in the Tower of London and even executed by King Henry the VIII.
Consequences of Henry's Changes
After Henry's second wife Anne Boleyn gave birth to a girl she was convicted of treason and beheaded
Henry's third wife Jane Seymour gave birth to a boy named Edward but she died shortly after.
Henry married three more times but none bore any more children.
King Henry VIII's 6 Wives
After Henry died in 1547, his three children ruled England causing religious turmoil.
Edward became king at 9 years old and was guided by protestant advisers that introduced protestant reforms into England's Church.
After Edward became ill after six years in charge Mary took the throne in 1553. She returned power to the Pope.
After Mary died in 1558, Elizabeth, Anne Boleyn's daughter, inherited the throne.
Elizabeth Restores Protestantism
Elizabeth wanted to return England to Protestantism.
in 1559 Parliament set up the Church of England (Anglican Church) with Elizabeth as the head. Only legal Church in England.
Elizabeth established a state church that both catholics and protestants would accept.
Elizabeth I came to power at a time of religious turmoil. How did she deal with the question of religion?
Who Was Queen Elizabeth I
Elizabeth Faces Other Challenges
Though Elizabeth brought a level of religious peace in England many were unhappy. Many tried to overthrow her.
Money was a big problem as the American empire strengthened England economically but didn't enrich the queen. This need more money carried onto other reins causing conflict between the monarch and Parliament.
Reformation gained ground in other European countries
Cause of Reformation
By 1500's multiple things weakened the church
Individuals challenged the church's authority
The invention of the printing press helped spread the secular ideas.
When the printing press came out writers began to use common language instead of Latin.
Because of the printing press people began to expand in their knowledge, and form groups with other people that had common interests with.
In addition to everything else some rulers decided to challenge the church's political power.
Criticism of Catholic Church
Critics of the church claimed that it's leaders were corrupt
The Popes of the church would mock the art spent on personal pleasure, and fought wars
Many Popes were busy having worldly affairs, rather than fulfilling their spiritual duties.
What would happen if the Popes we caught during their affair?
Many Priests and monks were not educated enough to even read let alone teach other people.
What would be different if we didn't invent the printing press?
causes of Reformation
pope Alexander IV had fathered several children
some social changes were that the Renaissance values of humanism and secularism led people to question the Church
The printing press helped spread ideas to the critical church
Merchants and other were resented to have to taxes to the church
After the renaissance happened all sorts of new ideas were being made like the printing press and more new technology
the printing press was actually helping bring more ideas in
More writers began to work together and began to translate words in other languages into common language instead of using latin
Many of Luther's ideas were already being put into place.
Princes who supported luther signed a protest against that agreement.
Protesting princes are known as protestants.
The term protestants applied to Christians who were not Roman Catholic or eastern orthodox.
Princes who remained loyal to the pope joined forces against Luther's ideas.
Charles V thought that his subjects should remain Catholic.
Connects to Charles V
Luther and his followers had become a separate religious group, called Lutherans
others liked luther's ideas for selfish reasons.
They saw his teachings as a good excuse to seize church property and to assert their independence from charles V.
German princes supported Lutheranism.