Enzyme - Properties and Nature | Yovraj 10.1 - Coggle Diagram
Enzyme - Properties and Nature | Yovraj 10.1
Are special comounds produced by living cells in a body of an organism that allow chemical reactions to take place at a faster rate.
Act as catalysts.
Are made of protein.
Alter the rate of chemical reactions without themselves being chemically changed.
Each enzyme has a unique shape.
DIGESTION - Complex insoluble molecules are broken down into small soluble molecules.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION - Oxidation of glucose to produce energy
GERMINATION OF SEEDS
EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMES - Enzymes leave the cell in which they were produced to exert their functions outside the cell. E.g. Salivary amylase.
INTRCELLULAR ENZYMES - Enzymes exert their action inside the cells. E.g. Lysozyme in Lysosomes.
Lock and Key hypothesis.
Enzyme catalyzed reaction -
Lock = Enzyme molecule
Hydrolysis - splitting of water (water molecules are needed to break down complex molecules)
E.g. (a) Carbohydrases (carbohydrates)
(b) amylases (starch)
(c) cellulases (cellulose)
(d) proteases (proteins)
(e) lipases (fats)
Enzymes are required in minute amounts -
A small amount of enzyme is capable of catalyzing a huge reaction.
Enzymes are very specific -
Amylases will only act on starch and on proteins or fats. The substances taht enzymes act on are called substrates (starch, proteins and fats)
Enzyme activity is affected by temperature -
Enzymes have an optimum temperatures at which they function very effectively.
At low temperatures enzymes are inactive.
As the temperature increases, the rate of reaction increases.
Beyond the optimum temperature, the enzyme activity decreases as the enzyme is denatured.
Enzyme activity is affected by pH -
Enzymes are affected by the acidity or the alkalinity of solutions.
Some work best in acidic environment (e.g. pepsin)
Alkaline environment (intestinal enzymes e.g. amylase)
Extreme changes to the pH can denature the enzymes.
WHY DO ENZYMES DENATURE
Enzymes are made up of proteins.
Proteins → heat them up → changes their shape.
Their 3-D structure is changed.
Changes are made to the active site.