Cognitive Etiology of MDD, Aaron Beck - Coggle Diagram
Cognitive Etiology of MDD
Negative view of the self
Negative view of the future
Negative view of the world
negative and defeatist way,
interfere with normal cognitive processing
Hopelessness because their worthlessness will prevent their situation improving
"helpless, worthless, and inadequate."
Negative Self Schemas
from depression prone individuals
have beliefs that make them pessimistic and negative
acquired possibly from traumatic childhood event
not necessarily develop depression
stressful life event is required to activate
this negative schema later in life.
activates illogical thoughts that dominate thinking
Errors in Logic
tend to focus selectively on certain aspects of a situation while ignoring equally releveant information
illogical thought patterns are self defeating and can cause great anxiety or depression
Types of Errors in Logic
Magnification and Minimisation.
Such thoughts exacerbate, and are exacerbated by the cognitive triad.
thought to be automatic
Theory of Learned Helplessness
Proposed by Martin Seligman (1974)
depression occurs when a person learns that their attempts to escape negative situations make no
avoids adversive stimuli or escape even when escape is possible
Procedure of Study
A dog put into a partitioned cage learns to escape when the floor is electrified. If the dog is restrained whilst being shocked it eventually stops trying to escape.
helped explain depression in
humans in terms of learned helplessness
individual gives up trying to influence their environment because they have learned that they are helpless
as a consequence of having no control of what happens to them
does not take cognition into account
Dogs subjected to inescapable electric shocks later failed to escape from shocks even when it was possible to do so. Moreover, they exhibited some of the symptoms of depression found in humans (lethargy, sluggishness, passive in the face of stress and appetite loss.)
Abramson, Seligman, and Teasdale (1978)
cognitive version of the theory with
with 3 dimensions
stable or permanent cause
argued that people who attribute failure to internal, stable, and global causes
are more likely to become depressed than those who attribute failure to external, unstable and specific causes.
former attributional style (external, unstable and specific) leads people to the conclusion that they are unable to change things for the better.
Global or Specific
the cause relates to the person or particular feature
The patterns of information processing (how an individual interprets various life events) influence the development of the disorder.