Why was the Berlin wall built in 1961? - Coggle Diagram
Why was the Berlin wall built in 1961?
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles
development of Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles in the arms race increased pressure
the situation in East Germany
approximately 2,8 billion people escaped East Germany for West Germany from 1949 to 1961
authorities in the east were concerned that all the skilled workers and intellectuals leaving would harm the economy
in November 1958 Krushchev demanded Berlin be evacuated by foreign military powers in six months
Eisenhower proposed both sides withdraw and Berlin to be handed to the League
Krushchev and Eisnehowver decided to meet at Paris in 1960
KGB, USSR secret police was aware of U2 flights from the CIA over Soviet territory
U2 planes could be detected but not shot down since they flew too high
S-75 missiles were developed by USSR and managed to shoot a U2 down
the American pilot, Gary Powers parachuted to the ground but was captured
Eisenhower ended up accepting the truth but not apologising
Kennedy and Krushchev: the Vienna summit in 1961
Eisenhower substituted by John F. Kennedy in the next election
Paris summit was canelled by Khruschev
America was embarrassed as it was shown to have lied about the U2 plane’s mission
Nothing was resolved on the issue of Berlin and it would remain a major source of tension in the Cold War.
The relationship between the USA and the USSR deteriorated even further, heightening Cold War tensions.
John F. Kennedy refused to leave West Berlin and on 25 July, increased America’s spending on weapons.
building on the Berlin Wall
Krushchev made a meeting with Warsaw Pact leaders and instructured East Germany leader Walter Ulbricht to build a wall around West Berlin
the wall ran for 103 miles and had electric fences, guard towers with snipers, landmines and other feautres
US response and the crisis of October
US didn't want to risk war
an American official and his wife were denied entry to East Berlin to watch a play
General Clay send tanks to Checkpoint Charlie
Soviets sent tanks too
they stood for 16 hours without doing anything
Kennedy told Krushchev he would withdrow if he did too and he agreed