Social Identity Theory (SIT) - Coggle Diagram
Social Identity Theory (SIT)
Social identity theory is a theory which states that an individual's sense of self is developed on the basis of group membership, and this identity is shared with other members of the same group.
Personal identity and social identity
= as 'the part of an individual's self-concept which derives from [their] knowledge of [their] membership of a social group together with the emotional significance attached to that membership
ever changing phenomenon, any individual is influenced by a number of social identities
social identities ultimately influences and contributes to the development of a unique personal identity.
join social groups-- purposes of self-enhancement, increasing self-esteem or for the reduction of uncertainty. -Humans tend to see similar individuals as more predictable, and therefore relationships are sought with them.
origins in research on the minimal group paradigm in the 1970s --> suggested that group categorisation is all that's necessary for intergroup discrimination to occur,
develop the theory: Brewer (1991), Turner and Reynolds (2011),Capozza and Brown (2000),Tajfel and Turner (1986), Tajfel and Turner (1979)
based on the idea that individual behaviour happens somewhere on a continuum from interpersonal to intergroups--> positive distinctiveness
social groups are categorised and compared to make them distinct from each other
p is a group with which a person identifies as a member
is a group with which a person does not identify as a member
1) Social categorisation
in-groupe--revovles around perception of similarities and shared carachteristics of an in-groupe out-group--have a shared characteristics of their own
=we are all the same
= they are all the same
increased variability between the in-group and the out-group (we are different from them)
==> is the division of social groups into in-groups and out-groups, as an individual identifies with the groups to which they belong.
category accentuation effect= exaggeration of group differences and intragroup similaritie
enhance the status of their in-groups (feel good about ourself)
2) Social identification
==> is the process by which an individual identifies strongly with an in-group, and co-opts the norms and attitudes of other members within that group.
members within that group are seen as compatible with one's own or worthy of imitation by oneself
sense of belongin
g to a social group
3) Social comparison
==> is the process by which an individual favourably compares their in-groups with out-groups.
Once an individual has identified with an in-group, the comparisons with out-groups begin.
order to maintain s
--> the in-group needs to be compared
- so social comparison often leads to perceptions of in-group superiority
lead to prejudice and discrimination
need for positive distinctiveness-uperiority of an in-group over relevant out-groups
each group seeks to view itself as different from (and also better than) its rivals
==> is an individual's motivation to show that an in-group is preferable to an out-group.
intergroup relations on the basis of perceptions about groups,
The scope of social identity is too limited, really, so self-categorisation theory
means of boosting self-esteem
limited to the short-term
Individuals define themselves as members of a social group.
They learn the behaviours associated with group membership, and differentiate these from others.
They internalise group norms and attributes through depersonalisation and self-stereotyping.
Individual behaviour normalises to the group.