Solutions - Coggle Diagram
Section 1: solutions produced when a solute dissolves in a solvent to produce a solution
Eg. A solid solute, such as nickel(II) nitrate, dissolves in water (the solvent) to produce a solution.
The concentration of a solution is the amount (in mol) or mass (in g) of solute per volume of solution. Units of concentration include mol dm-3, g dm-3 or parts per million (ppm).
concentration (mol dm^−3) = amount of solute (mol) / volume of solution (dm^3)
amount (mol) = concentration (mol dm^−3) × volume (dm^3)
volume (dm^3) = amount (mol) / concentration (mol dm^−3)
concentration (g dm^−3) = mass of solute (g) / volume of solution (dm^3)
concentration (ppm) = mass of solute (g) / mass of solution (g) × 10^6
A standard solution is a solution with an accurately known concentration.
A primary standard solution is made using a primary standard.
High purity (99.9 %).
High molar mass.
Does not change composition in contact with air.
secondary standard solution
a solution that has been standardised against a primary standard solution
involves diluting a stock solution multiple times, usually by the same factor, which results in an exponential decrease in concentration
solutions are examples of homogeneous mixtures
homogeneous mixture has a constant composition throughout
Solutions can be either dilute or concentrated
A dilute solution contains a relatively small amount of dissolved solute whereas a concentrated solution contains a relatively large amount of dissolved solute.