The Research Process - Stephen Leverton - Coggle Diagram
The Research Process - Stephen Leverton
The Scientific Method:
Is the study we're conducting
Is the association between the variables in the study
Is our data
Is it based on our observation of a study as well as its measurement?
Are our research questions
The conceptual definition in research is the working definition of a term or variable.
The operational definition is how the term or variable described in the conceptual definition can be measured in the real world.
Variables and Unit of Analysis
Variables that use numbers and can be ranked based on that number ranking.
Unit of Analysis:
Variable of our study. It's the entity we want to describe and analyze. This can range from individuals to group of individuals to organizations.
Variables that can be grouped into categories based on characteristics.
Standards of Good Measurements:
Validity: Validity refers to the extent that we, as researches, go to measure what we're trying to measure. For example, if we're trying to measure political participation here at App State, we could ask people if they vote and keep up with the news.
Precision: Precision depends on the level of measurement and what instruments we use in order to find what we're looking for.
Reliability: Reliability occurs when the measurements you obtain during a test are consistent when it's repeated. Going back to our class example, it's when you consistently through a dart at around the same place on the dart board.
Systematic Errors: errors that are consistently incorrect the more you repeat a study.
Random Errors: measures that are
consistently incorrect when you repeat a study or test.
Levels of Measurements:
Ordinal: takes categories and puts them on a ranking system. Examples: drink sizes, letter grades, approval/disapproval
Interval: uses numbers in ranked categories. Examples: IQ scores, SAT scores, temperature
Nominal: Focuses on distinguishing between different categories. Examples: pizza toppings, gender, voter registration, eye color, hair color, etc.
Ratio: similar to interval but uses 0 as a variable. Examples: time, bank statements, money.