How Chocolate is Made (Chocolate Processing) - Coggle Diagram
How Chocolate is Made
In the Manufacturing Plant
1- Testing, Cleaning and Roasting
2- Cracking (or Fanning) and Grinding
3- Grinding and Refining
5- Tempering and Forming Chololate
The conched chocolate mass is tempered and molded into bulk bars (or wafers) or it may produce to specialized retail products, such as coated-candy centers and molded items by another production cycle.
This process develops the flavor, texture and quality of the chocolate. Chocolate will be kneaded in the conch machine over a period of hours or days depending on the flavor and texture desired by the manufacturer.
For the grinding process, the nibs are ground or crushed using a milling or grinding machine such as a melangeur to liquefy the cocoa butter and produce chocolate liquor or chocolate liquid.
A roll refiner or ball mill is used by most chocolate manufacturers in the refining process. It has two functions namely first is to further reduce the particle size of the cocoa mass (and any other ingredients, such as sugar or milk powder) and second is to distribute the cocoa butter evenly throughout the mass and coating all the particles.
The rolling process creates heat that melts and distributes the cocoa butter. In this process, manufacturers must decide on the particle size for each of their chocolates to develop chocolate’s smooth and creamy mouth-feel.
In this process as well, the manufacturer combines certain ingredients with the chocolate liquor to give a unique taste to the chocolate produced.
The shell of the cocoa bean separates from the bean kernel when going through the roasting process and is removed in the first step of the cracking or fanning process. Next, the beans are cracked through serrated cones. Now it’s called cocoa nibs.
The dried and lightweighted shell can be winnowed from the cocoa nib. Winnowing is done by exposure to a current of air, so that the shells are blown free of the heavier nibs. As much as 53 percent cocoa butter is contained in nibs and it depends on the cocoa species.
The selected cocoa beans that have arrived will undergo a very extensive sampling and testing procedure from the manufacturing plant. Sample cocoa beans are tested in terms of size and defects and then ground into unsweetened chocolate which is evaluated for flavor and aroma by company tasters.
The cocoa beans that have been tested will be sent to the manufacturer. The beans are carefully cleaned to remove any foreign matter and roasted for 10 to 35 minutes.
In the Cacao Field
1- Harvest and Fermention
2- Dying and Storage
The cocoa beans as they are now called after fermentation must be dried before being shipped or stored.
The drying process differs depending on the climate or size of the plantation.
Cocoa beans can be dried either in the sun or in a closed place as long as there is enough water circulating around the flats of the beans.
Bulk chocolate manufacturers and chocolatiers do not like the drying process done using firewood because the process leaves the beans with a smoky taste.
The cocoa beans that reach 6 to 7 percent moisture will be sorted according to their size and quality and put into bags to be loaded onto a ship to be shipped to the chocolate manufacturer.
Cacao trees produce buds on a continuous basis. This can be year-round in subtropical areas or it can be tied to the rain cycle.
Fluctuations in growth cycle and harvest can occur because of changes in climate conditions.
Harvesting the cacao pods uses hands to identify the mature pods to prevent flower buds, immature fruit or stem areas from which the buds grow from being damaged.
Then, cut the pods from the tree.
Break the pods carefully to release the cacoa beans, which are embedded in a moist, fibrous, white pulp.
Scoop out the beans and pulp and heaped in a pile on mats or banana leaves and covered, or put into a bin or box with a lid.
Fermentation occurs when the pulp surrounding the cacao bean is converted into alcohol by the yeasts present in the air and the heat generated by the pile or box.
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