Vascular Disorders and Shock, PAD-1-1200x800, peripheral_artery_disease…
Vascular Disorders and Shock
Supervised Excericise Programs
Poor Wound Healing
Healthy Diet Changes
Avoid Cold Medication
Diabetes Management (If applicable)
Careful Foot Care
Decreased Skin Temperature
Weak pulses in legs and feet
Sores on lower extremities that do not heal
Pale or Bluish Skin
High Blood Pressure
High Cholestrol Levels
High Saturated Fat Diet
Skin ( Lower Extremities)
Periphreal Vascular Disease (PAD)
Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)
CAD ( Coronary Artery Disease)
Carotid Artery Disease (CAD)
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Chronic Venous Insufficiency
Kidneys: shows "acute tubular necrosis" due to ischemic injury. Oliguria, anuria and electrolyte imbalance occur.
Brain: may develop hypoxic (ischaemic) encephalopathy
Heart: shows sub-endocardial haemorrhages and necrosis of individual myofibres or zonal lesions and scattered contraction bands within myocytes.
Lungs: in hypovolaemic shock lungs are usually not affected. In cardiogenic and septic shock there may be severe pulmonary oedema and shock lung (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome ARDS)
Liver: may show fatty changes and central necrosis.
Other organs: like gastrointestinal tract, adrenal and pituitary glands may be affected
Signs and symptoms
Pale or ashen skin
Bluish tinge to lips or fingernails (or gray in the case of dark complexions)
Cool, clammy skin
Nausea or vomiting
Weakness or fatigue
Dizziness or fainting
Changes in mental status or behavior, such as anxiousness or agitation
Non-progressive phase or compensated phase: During this phase of shock, neurohumoral mechanisms help to maintain cardiac output and blood pressure. These include baroreceptor reflexes, release of catecholamines, activation of renin-angiotensinsystem, and antidiuretic hormone secretion. If recovery occurs then it is labelled "reversible shock".
Progressive or de-compensated phase: If compensatory mechanisms fail to prevent circulatory insufficiency then there is a rapid pulse, further lowering of blood pressure, respiratory difficulties, low urine output (oliguric phase) and metabolic acidosis. Hypoperfusion starts to develop leading to circulatory and metabolic imbalances.
Irreversible stage:The patient deteriorates due to failure of the compensatory mechanisms. There is so severe cellular and tissue injury that death occur even if the haemodynamic defects are corrected.