SEMIOTICS - Coggle Diagram
Is the study of signs and sign-using behavior :check: :warning:
FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE
defined by one of its founders
For Saussure, language is a network of elements that represent something only in relation to each other. The sing relation is dyadic, consisting only of a form of the sing ''the signifier'' and its meaning '' the signified''.
Saussure's Definition of a Sign
Charles Sanders Peirce
One of the many sign definitions of him was
He defines a sign as everything that is determined by something else, called its Object, and thus determines an effect on a person, an effect that I call its interpretant, so that the latter is mediately determined by the former.
3 TYPES OF SIGNS
The signifier does not look like the signified
A symbol has no resemblance between the signifier and the signified. The connection between them must be learned culturally. Numbers and alphabets are good examples.
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The signifier is perceived that is looking like or imitating the signified.
An Icon has a physical resemblance to the meaning, the thing that is represented. A photograph can be an example.
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signifier is directly connected in some way (physically or causally) to the signified .
An index shows evidence of what is represented. A good example is using an image of smoke to indicate fire.
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According to Barthes
The signs had both a signifier, being the physical form of the sign as we perceive it through our senses and the signified, or meaning that is interpreted.
Tends to be described as the definitional, 'literal', 'obvious' or 'commonsense' meaning of a sign.
this is the second order signifying system.
Connotation and denotation are often described in terms of levels of representation or levels of meaning.
this is the first order signifying system.
Jacques Derrida takes as his object the Saussurean relationship of signifier and signified, asserting that signifier and signified are not fixed, coining the expression différance, relating to the endless deferral of meaning, and to the absence of a 'transcendent signified'.
-He deals more with the analysis of written texts.
-The signifiers (words) mean more than the signifieds given (dictionary)
-It means connotation based on history, period, social class, culture, etc.
EXAMPLE: A sing in fast food restaurants
Pictures menus available upon request
He explained about the speaking subject (referent)= writer or speaker, and the subject of speech (referee) = “I” in discourse – the word spelled “I.”
The I- You polatory is an important development explored in his book Problems in General Linguistics. the third person acst under the conditions of possibility of this polatory between the firs and second person.
EXAMPLE: ''I'' signifies the person who is uttering the present instance of the discourse containing. ''You'' is defined by introducing the situation of ''address''.