Science impact on industrial revolution , Industry 1.0, late 1960s -…
Science impact on industrial revolution
The Fourth Industrial Revolution
the application of information and communication technologies to industry
Production systems that already have computer technology are expanded by a network connection and have a digital twin on the Internet so to speak. These allow communication with other facilities and the output of information about themselves. This is the next step in production automation. The networking of all systems leads to "cyber-physical production systems" and therefore smart factories, in which production systems, components and people communicate via a network and production is nearly autonomous. When these enablers come together, Industry 4.0 has the potential to deliver some incredible advances in factory environments. Examples include machines which can predict failures and trigger maintenance processes autonomously or self-organized logistics which react to unexpected changes in production.
Industry 4.0 is built on 9 technology pillars. These advancements bridge the digital and physical worlds and make autonomous and smart systems possible.
The Third Industrial Revolution
partial automation using memory-programmable controls and computers
Since the introduction of these technologies, we are now able to automate an entire production process - without human assistance. Known examples of this are robots that perform programmed sequences without human intervention.
Radical improvements in productivity and automation
Businesses are reducing costs, improving market efficiency, and connecting supply chains by sea, land, and air.
deliver customized products cost efficiently and at scale
Automotive Automation Booms in the 1970s
Although, in general terms, there is no consensus about the duration of the Third Industrial Revolution, there is currently a sector of experts who consider that it has already come to an end. For these, humanity would have entered what they call the Fourth Revolution, which goes a step further than the previous one.
The Second Industrial Revolution
the discovery of electricity and assembly line production
took the idea of mass production from a slaughterhouse in Chicago: The pigs hung from conveyor belts and each butcher performed only a part of the task of butchering the animal. Henry Ford carried over these principles into automobile production and drastically altered it in the process. While before one station assembled an entire automobile, now the vehicles were produced in partial steps on the conveyor belt - significantly faster and at lower cost.
Close working and living conditions produced a sense of class consciousness among the working class.
The pace of work, driven by machines, increase dramatically.
Families were separate as the place of work shifted from the home to factories.
Urbanization increased rapidly. The population moved into hastily built housing in cities to be nearer to the factories.
The First Industrial Revolution
the use of steam power and mechanisation of production
massive extraction of coal and the invention of the steam engine
The first two industrial revolutions made people richer and more urban.
The first two industrial revolution transform the way goods are made and change the politics of jobs
Pros and Cons