Models and Theories that explain L2/FL Acquisition, (), , image, image,…
Models and Theories that explain L2/FL Acquisition
Theory of second language acquisition must take into account that
There is tremendous variation between learners in cognitive style and within a learner’s strategy choice
Personality will affect both the quantity and quality of second language learning
There are important differences between adult and child learning, and btw L1 and L2 learning
Understanding of what language is, what learning is, and for classroom contexts, what teaching is
Knowledge of children’s learning of their L1 provides essential insights to an understanding of L2 acquisition
Learning a second language implies learning its culture
Errors show the learner is learning, and teachers and learners can gain insight from them
‘Adult second language acquisition’
There are predictable sequences in acquisition so that certain structures
have to be acquired before others can be integrated
Knowing a language rule does not mean one will be able to use it in communicative interaction
Isolated explicit error correction is usually ineffective in changing
For most adult learners, acquisition fossilizes (stops) before the learner
has achieved native-like proficiency
The learner creates a systematic interlanguage that is often characterized by the same systematic errors as those of a child learning the first language
A learner’s ability to understand language in a meaningful context exceeds his or her ability to comprehend de-contextualized language and to produce the language of comparable complexity and accuracy.
Theories of SLA/FLA
They explain acquisition by positing an innate biological endowment that makes learning possible
Input based theories
Acquisition vs. Learning hypothesis
: Two different ways to ‘learn’ a language: a subconscious process, natural, identical to the one little children learning their mother tongue use, and effective. A second process, Learning, is conscious and consists of learning grammar rules
Natural Order hypothesis
Second language rules are acquired in a fixed way, preestablished, determined by innate mechanisms, and not by the linguistic complexity or explicit teaching.
The monitor only controls learning, not acquisition. The monitor plans to edit and correct the learner’s production when there is time.
It explains how language is acquired. A second language is acquired processing comprehensible input, that is, input that has been listened to and understood. If that input is beyond the level of the student and he does not understand it, then that input is useless.
Affective filter Hypothesis
It considers the role of the acquisition of several factors, such as motivation, self-confidence, or anxiety. These factors foster or impede acquisition, though they do not produce acquisition
They hold that an organism’s experience is of more importance to development than its nature, or innate contributions.
Connectionist Models: Parallel Distributed Processing or (PDP)
A theory of cognition which assumes no innate endowment. PDP theorists hold that learning is based on the processing of input, but not in the sense of creating rules. Learning is held to consist of the strengthening and weakening of connections in complex neural networks as a function of the frequency of stimuli in the input. The networks control what looks like rule-governed behavior, but which is simply a reflection of the connections formed based on the relative strengths of various patterns in the input.
More powerful than either nativist or environmentalist theories because they
invoke both innate and environmental factors to explain language learning.
Acquisition of language is organized around three dimensions: Propensity, or necessity to acquire the language (related to factors such as motivation, education…), Linguistic faculty for learning that language (related to his biological capacity and the knowledge at his disposal), and having Access to that language (related to input and communication opportunities). These three dimensions are the conditions for learning to take place.