Wave and Tidal Underwater-tidal-power-st-006 , TEAM 6, image - Coggle…
Wave and Tidal
Ultra-low-head tidal techniques
New application under development, which focused on harvesting energy from low head tidal differences of less than 2 metres (m)(Zhou and Deng 2017)
By developing it, just 0.1% of the worlds tailwater sources, 12 GWh/year electricity could be generated (Zhou et al. 2019)
For example, the tidal barrage project in the Gravelingen Lake in the Netherlands (Zhou and Deng 2017)
The wide blade passages and low rotating speed can significantly reduce collision damage for fish (Marsh 2009)
No dam or a very low dam is involved, barriers for fish migration and navigation are avoided and water flow downstream are ensured (Marsh 2009)
A tidal barrage is a dam-like structure used to capture the energy from masses of water moving in and out of a bay or river due to tidal forces (O. Tim, 2019)
A tidal barrage allows water to flow into a bay or river during high tide, and releases the water during low tide while turbines are placed at the sluices to capture the energy as the water flows in and out (O. Tim, 2019)
Tidal barrage can reduce the mitigation of flood from storm surge on coastal towns and ports (Qian Ma, 2019)
Barrages can have a big impact on the environment, as they create an area that is cut off from the rest of the ocean. This could trap fish and other sea life, along with sewage (T. Aimee, 2021)
Dynamic tidal power
The DTP and the tidal lagoon are new and alternative tidal power systems (Park 2017)
DTP is similar to the tidal barrage but its structure is open from coastline to offshore (Park 2017)
New method of power generation harnesses the energy in oscillating tidal waves that run parallel along the coasts of continental shelves and contain powerful hydraulic currents (Steijn, 2021)
Dynamic tidal power doesn’t require a very high natural tidal range, but instead an open coast where the tidal propagation is alongshore (Steijn, 2021)
Although the head is relatively small (1-3 m), the discharge (m3/s) is enormous, leading to high installed power rates. (Steijn, 2021)
The potential for 10,000 megawatts (10 GW) of generating capacity, with 3,000 turbine units installed, capable of producing 3.5 MW each (Steijn, 2021)
DTP installation to capture the power of both incoming and outgoing tides without harming the local fish population (Steijn, 2021)
Tidal Stream Generator
Tidal stream generator converts kinetic energy in the waves into mechanical power in turbine and then into electrical energy from generators coupled to the turbine (P.S.R Murthy, 2017)
Water is about 800 times denser than air therefore a single generator can provide significant power at low tidal flow velocities compared with similar wind speed (S.C. Bhatia)
Tidal stream generators are much cheaper to build, and do not have as much of an environmental impact as the turbines turn relatively slowly, hence do not affect sea life (Vikas Khare, 2019)
The tidal stream generator does not produce as much power like a tidal barrage and the equipment are prone to corrosion if not properly maintained (Vikas Khare, 2019)
Hybrid applications (Boretti, 2020)
tidal technologies combined with new infrastructure
for coastal zones.
no full-scale prototype has been built yet.
Tidal Current/Tidal stream (Boretti, 2020)
significant approaching bays or estuaries.
relatively predictable and
minimally influenced by the weather
Tidal Range (Boretti, 2020)
use barrage - harvest energy from diff height
new ideas - lagoons, reefs, fences, low-head tidal barrages
energy available dependent on volume of water in basin
Tidal Barrages (Rosli, 2018)
Operate in a similar principle as hydropower plants.
exploits the potential head difference between flood and ebb tide
Two of the world’s largest tidal barrages: the Sihwa
Lake (South Korea) and the La Rance (France)
Hydrodynamic of MHK
help with the harvesting of oceanic currents.
most developed aspect - hydrodynamic, mechanical power production
13% growth in 2019, need speedy development - Sustainable Development Scenario (SDS) [23% growth through 2030] (Adrian 2020)
Tidal stream energy holds more potential compared to wave energy, or offshore wind energy - however, very few areas are suitable for extraction of tidal stream energy
Technology concerning the extraction of tidal stream energy is still in the nascent stage of
development, however, it has massive potential to gain a signifcant fraction in the future
energy mix for sites in
UK, Canada, France, Spain, Norway, Indonesia, Taiwan, China, Philippines, Malaysia, New Zealand (Chowdhury, 2020)
Zero formation of greenhouse gases (GHG)
(Lane, C., 2020)
Since the power of tides and currents can be forecasted accurately, the predictability of power generation can be done easily.
(Lane, C., 2020)
Renewable Energy Source
There will be no energy depletion while usage.
While harnessing energy from the changing tidal wave, the amount of retrieved energy will not decrease.
(Lane, C., 2020)
High Power Output
Fun Fact: water is 800x denser than air.
Which means the energy produced by the tidal turbine will be higher than the energy produced by wind turbine of the same size.
The density of water allows it to power a turbine even when the water moves in slow speed proving its capability of high power generation.
(Lane, C., 2020)
Enormous Energy Potential
Waves exerts high amount of kinetic energy which can be converted into electricity
Example: an average 4ft wave which lasts for 10s can put out 35,000 horsepower per mile of coast.
(Almerini, A., 2020)
Reliable Energy Source
Always in motion
The amount of energy produced may vary every year as the waves are more active in cold season.
(Almerini, A., 2020)
Large Turbine with lot of steel must be selected and the building structure is complicated
Since it is submerged in deep sea, there is also the potential of erosion
Can only be build in sea with high current and huge tidal
Cannot be build in calm sea with low current such as the Strait of Malacca
can negatively affect marine life
The construction of the building may cause the change the under sea current which can affect marine life in the are
May affect the sea water quality as it affect sedimentation transportation
(O Rourke, Boyle & Reynolds, 2010)
sea waves intensity may vary a lot
The tidal range and sea level changes throughout the day
guaranteed production time is short and the power generated is not fixed
Zhou, Daqing, Jia Gui, Zhiqun Daniel Deng, Huixiang Chen, Yunyun Yu, An Yu, and Chunxia Yang. 2019. “Development of an Ultra-Low Head Siphon Hydro Turbine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics.” Energy 181:43–50. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2019.05.060.
Zhou, Daqing, and Zhiqun (Daniel) Deng. 2017. “Ultra-Low-Head Hydroelectric Technology: A Review.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 78(March 2016):23–30. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2017.04.086.
Park, Young Hyun. 2017. “Analysis of Characteristics of Dynamic Tidal Power on the West Coast of Korea.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 68(October 2016):461–74. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.10.008.
Marsh, George. 2009. “Wave and Tidal Power — an Emerging New Market for Composites.” Reinforced Plastics 53(5):20–24. doi: 10.1016/s0034-3617(09)70220-6.
Tidal Energy: 1. What are the technologies used to obtain tidal energy?. (2021). Retrieved 20 June 2021, from
Steijn, R. (2021). Dynamic Tidal Power Technology Advances. Retrieved 20 June 2021, from
Lane, C. (2020, December 6). Tidal energy pros and cons [web log].
Almerini, A. (2020, December 6). Wave energy pros and cons [web log].
Liu, J. (2021). Design and simulation analysis of offshore tidal energy generating set system based on sensor network. Arabian Journal Of Geosciences, 14(11). doi: 10.1007/s12517-021-07201-4
O Rourke, F., Boyle, F., & Reynolds, A. (2010). Tidal energy update 2009. Applied Energy, 87(2), 398-409. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.08.014
Ma, Q., Moreira, T. M., & Adcock, T. A. (2019). The impact of a tidal barrage on coastal flooding due to storm surge in the Severn Estuary. Journal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy, 5(3), 217-226.
Khare, V., Khare, C., Nema, S., & Baredar, P. (2018). Tidal Energy Systems: design, optimization and control. Elsevier.
Bhatia, S. C. (Ed.). (2014). Advanced renewable energy systems,(Part 1 and 2). CRC Press.
O'Doherty, T., O'Doherty, D. M., & Mason‐Jones, A. (2018). Tidal energy technology. Wave and Tidal Energy, 105-150.
Boretti, A. (2020). Trends in tidal power development. E3S Web of Conferences, 173, 01003. doi:10.1051/e3sconf/202017301003
Abiad, A. A., & Rosa Mia Dagli, S. (2020). The economic impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on developing
Asia. Adrian 2020. Renewable Capacity Statistics 2020.
R. Rosli and E. Dimla, "A review of tidal current energy resource assessment: Current status and trend," 2018 5th International Conference on Renewable Energy: Generation and Applications (ICREGA), 2018, pp. 34-40, doi: 10.1109/ICREGA.2018.8337585.
Chowdhury, M.S., Rahman, K.S., Selvanathan, V. et al. Current trends and prospects of tidal energy technology. Environ Dev Sustain 23, 8179–8194 (2021).
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