Age and Acquisition - Coggle Diagram
Age and Acquisition
Issues in first language acquisition revisited
5.Systematicity and Variability
Systematicity : the firts language acquisition process: 1. Learners induce rules , 2. Generalize across a category, 3. avergeneralize, 4. Proceed in stages of development.
Variability: is exarcerbated bya host of: 1. cognitive, 2. affcetive, 3. Cultural, 4. Contextual variables.
3.Nature or Nurture
LAD: " Little Black Bob"
Adults: The nature might play on adults is to virtually rule out the acquisition of authentic accent.
children: have the capacity to acquire second language to any age
VanBuren 1996, suggests that children's developing secong language grammar are indeed constrained by UG
Lakshmanan 1995, the knowledge is available directly froma truly iniversal " Source"
O'Grady 1996 conclude that second language learners have only " Particial access" to UG
BleyVroman (1988) claiming a " no access" position for adults learning a second language:_ adults acquire second language systems without any refernce to UG
Competence and Performance
" Get at" linguistics competence in a second language as it is in a first on children is an effect in progres but in adults can be a little more direct taking in count that the adults in general are not able to verbalize rules and paradigms.
Is a good deep-structure ( centering on meaning not surface features )
Imitating surface structure ( by rote mechanisms)
Language and Thought
That are similat but not quite parallel to the second language but acquire a new system of conceptualization
Aware of cultural pattern that may be as interfering as the linguistics patterns
Relate with the communications with the students should foster meaningful communicative use of the language in appropriate contexts
Study of children' amasing dexterity in acquiring rules of conversation and peceiving intended, meaning will helps us to find ways of teaching such capaties to second langueag learners
The most important is the meaningfulness by contextualized, appropriate, meaningful communication in the second language
Comprehesion and Production
Second language usually menas learning to speak it and to comprehend it.
Some of parameters of effects of age and acquisition
Types of comparison and contrast
Three possible comparisons
Second language acquisition inchildren and adults ( C2-A2) holding second language constant
First language acquisition in childrenand second language acquisition in adults ( C1-A2)
First and second language acquisition in children ( C1- C2) holding age constant.
Some Arguments that cropped up from time
Language Teaching we must prcatice and prcatice. Example How child learning his mother tonge.
Language is matter of imitacion. Example : Mimic or imitates everything
. # 3 .1. Practice the separate sounds 2. Then words 3. Then sentences Is the natural order for learning foreign language.
Narural order for first and second language learning is: LISTENING, SPEAKING, READING, WRITING
Learn through with no have to translate
Learn through simply uses language instead formal grammar
How neurological develpment affect second language
The study of the function of the brain in the process of acquisition
Biological Timetables by Thomas Scovel 1988
Sociobiological: an accent emerging after puberty
Jane Hill (1970) says that adults can in the normal course of their lives, acquire second language perfectly.
Hemispheric Lateralization is a slow process that begins around the age of two and is completed around puberty
Intellectual, logical, analytic and language funtions
Emotional functions and social needs
Right- Hemispheric Participation
Obler(1981:58) suggests that second language learners particularly adult learners might benefit from more encouragement of right-brain activity in the classroom context.
The Critical Period Hypothesis ( CPH)
Exist an biological timetable.
Failed to acquire firts language is by arguments of biologically determined.
The second language acquisition occurs in the puberty
Some stages of the development intellectual
Sensorimotor stage( Birth to two)
Preoperational stage ( ages two to seven)
Operational Stage (ages seven to sixteen)
Concrete operational stage ( ages seven to eleven)
Formla operational stage ( ages rlrvrn to sixteen)
The significance of accent
Possible causes that persons beyond the age of puberty do not acquire what has come to be called authentic ( Narure- Speakers)
The enviroment of socio cultural influences
Includes many factors
Empathy, self-esteem, extroversion, inhibition, imitation, anxiety, attitudes, language ego, ego identification ( second identity), peer pressure ( child-adult comparisons)
How differ between children and adults
Interference in adults
Adults learning a second language manidest some of the same types od errors found in children learning their first language
The act of inserting word, phrases or ecen longer stretches of one language into the other
Separate contexts for the two languages
have one meaning system from which bothlanguages operate.
are people that learn a second language in such separate contexts and have two meaning systems
order of acquisition
Children learning a second language use a creative construction process
Interference Between first and second languages
The research confirms that the linguistics and cognitive processes of second language learning in young children are in generañ similar to first language processes