10 Psychological Studies and Everything you need to know about them -…
10 Psychological Studies and Everything you need to know about them
This study is the first in the area of
and is under the theme of
responses to authority
. This study links to the theme because it investigates a person's feeling of responsibility, how they behave when they are responsible for the injury of others.
This study also links to the social area because it looks at the effects of a person of authority. The experimenter always wore a white lab coat and would carry a clipboard in order to establish this.
The actor in this experiment ho played the learner was essentially a peer to the participant as they were deceived to believe they were both volunteers and had this commonality, this experiment looks into how someone would treat a peer.
Loftus and Palmer
This study is a part of the cognitive area of psychology and relates to the theme of memory. This study relates to the theme of memory because it is investigating how memory can be distorted. It also relates to the cognitive area because it uses inputs and investigates outputs.
The aim of this study was to investigate how the nature of different verbs influenced how people perceived memories. The second experiment investigated the effects of leading questions. The background to this was the concern over the accuracy of eyewitness statements and the use of leading questions in trials.
Experiment one used 45 students. Here the independent variable was the verb used in the critical question: bumped, contacted, hit, smashed or collided. They all watched a video of a staged car crash which was used by the police. Of known speeds. Afterwards they were given a questionnaire which consisted of both filler questions and a critical question.
It was found that those with the 'smashed' predicted the speed of the car to be the highest, then collided, bumped, hit and finally contacted.
The second experiment looked at the effects of leading questions.
Looks at context dependency.
Opportunity sampling and independent measures design. Mixed ages and mixed sex. They were separated into four groups: quiet quiet , noisy noisy , noisy quiet and quiet noisy. The noisy condition was a tape recording of a noisy cafe//
They were given the same passage of information to read in the first condition. They were rested on recall and then recognition.
Psychology students were asked to invite 5 people that they knew to participate.
To standardise the procedure all of the participants wore headphones.
Matched conditions = better.
Stanford university nursery. Somewhat mixed ages. Mixed sex. Categorised into levels of aggression. Inter rater reliability between the experimenter and the nursery teacher.
Whether or not they were shown a model.
Whether the model was aggressive or not
The sex of the model
The sex of the child
1) Modelling the behaviour
2) Arousing aggression
3) Testing for delayed imitation of aggression
It was found that all children are more likely to imitate the behaviour of a model that is the same sex than of a model of the opposite sex. It was also found that females are more likely too imitate verbal aggression whereas males are more likely to imitate physical aggressive behaviour. Physical aggression is displayed through actions such as smacking the bobo doll with a hammer. A verbal aggression example is "Pow" "sock him on the nose"
The behaviours of the children were observed. To see whether they displayed imitative aggression, partially imitative aggression or non imitative aggression.
Very little difference between the control and the non aggressive model.
Observers were blind to which condition the child was subject to.
Casey's study was on the delay of gratification. This was a longitudinal study which began as children. Here children were selected from a cohort. They did the marshmallow experiment. This sorted them into high or low delayers.
They were then asked to complete a self report questionnaire.