Digestive & Urinary system By Savanah Echeverria Period #5 - Coggle…
Digestive & Urinary system By Savanah Echeverria Period #5
Major functions of Digestive System
breaks it down to nutrient molecules
absorbs molecules into the blood stream
takes in food
rid body of any indigestible remains
Major functions of Urinary System
balance body fluids
balance variety of electrolytes
removes waste products and medicines from the body
release hormones to controll blood pressure and red cell production
help with bone health and controlling calcium and phosphorus
Major Organs of the Urinary System
is where urine passes from the renal tube and ends up in the bladder
is a flexible and storage for urine until it is allowed to pass through the urethra and out the body
: they filter blood and produce urine and they also remove waste, control the body fluids balance, and keep the right levels of electrolytes.
. are ducts that transmit urine from the bladder to the exterior of the body during urination. male and female urinary system are very similar but differing only in the length of the urethra.
Major Organs of Digestive System
: allows passage of food, fluids, air and passes from mouth into
oropharynx and laryngopharynx
: This is located near the trachea and the esophagus receives food from the mouth when you swallow and the
prevents you from choking and series of muscular contraction called
delivers food to the stomach. The lower
has to relax and let food in and the sphincter contracts and prevents the content of the stomach from flowing back into the esophagus
: The digestive tract and digestion start before you take a bite by having
which active. After you start eating you chew food into pieces so it's much easier to digest and your saliva mixes with the food and helps break down and form your body to absorb. Then you swallow and your tongue passes your food to your throat and goes to the esophagus.
: Also know as a container that holds food while it is mixing with stomach
and the enzymes continue to break down food into a usable form. the cells lining of the stomach secrete a strong acid and powerful enzymes that are responsible for the breakdown process.
: absorbs water and salts from the material that has not been digested as food, adn get rid of any waste products left over
: responsible for processing waste and emptying the bowels
8 inch chamber conectes the colon to the anus and it is to receive stool from colon and it lets you know that there is stool to be evacuated and to hold the stool until needed to
: absorbs fluids and salts remain after completion of intestinal digestion and absorption and mix the content with lubricating substance mucus
is the end of the gastrointestinal tract and when the rectum is full your body feels the urge to have a bowel movement and the internal anal sphincter relaxes and pushed the stool from the rectum into the anal canal.
: is made up of three sections
-2.5 m long ,
-3.6m long and both are responsible for absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream.
: -25.0cm long and responsible for the continuous break down process.
: breaks the long chainlike molecules of proteins into smaller fragments and eventually into their components of amino acids
Is to hydolyze the glycoside bonds and in starch molecules converting complex. carbonhydrates to simple sugars.
: enzyme that breaks down fat in food and this allows the tp to be absorbed in the intestines
Layers of GI Tract
: is a connective layer deep to supporting the mucosa and it allows the mucosa to move flexibly during peristalsis. In the stomach it provides nutrients to the wall of the stomach and the nervous tissue in the submucosa monitor the contents of the stomach and controls smooth muscle contraction and secretion of digestive substances
. responsible for segmental contractions and peristaltic movement. this causes food to move and churn together with digestive enzymes.
: the innermost layer and it function are absorption and secretion. It is composed of epithelial cells thin connective tissue. In the stomach it contains specialised cells and glands that produce hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes and help digest food. The stomach releases mucus and that helps protect the lining of the stoachfrom acid produced for digestion.
it lines and enclose several body cavities and that is where they secrete lubricating fluid to reduce friction from muscle movement. it also has a smooth surface that secretes a thin watery secretion known as serous fluid and protects stomach from friction as it expands with food and moves to mix and propel the food.
Physiology/ Anatomy of Nephrons
A nephron is a functional unit of the kidney and they cleanse the blood of toxins and balance the circulation to homeostatic set points through the process of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. they also control blood pressure, red blood cell production, and calcium absorption.
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
: It is located in the renal cortex of the medulla and functions in both reabsorption and secretion. In deeper, the function of the PCT is to reabsorb most of the filtered Na+ ions to deliver only a small quantity of Na+ ions to lower sites, and then these sites can then adjust their rate of reabsorption of Na+ ions to achieve balance for this cation in the steady-state.
: function is the reabsorption of 15% of filtered water and 25% of the filtered load of Na+. Also the production of a dilute filtrate entering the distal tubule. Lastly the development of a hypertonic interstitium in the medullary regions of the kidney
: The renal corpuscles are located in the cortex.responsible for the filtration of the plasma. with two structures which are the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule. The glomerulus is a cluster of capillary loops enclosed by Bowman's capsule also part of the renal tubule
Distal Convoluted Tubule
: It connects to the collecting duct system that fine-tunes salt and water reabsorption and major role in acid-base balance. Also helps homeostatic processes which including sodium chloride reabsorption, potassium secretion, and calcium and magnesium handling
: last part of nephron and participates in electrolyte and fluid balance through reabsorption and excretion, processes regulated by the hormones aldosterone and vasopressin. Also the last opportunity to resorb water and concentrate urine before they lead urine to the minor calyces. Antidiuretic Hormone which comes from hypothalamus directs the collecting ducts to concentrate urine.
: begins in the mouth with the mechanical action of chewing and the chemical action of salivary amylase. Carbohydrates are not chemically broken down in the stomach, but rather in the small intestine. The resultant monosaccharides are absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver which is the occurrence of absorption
: Sugar molecules start in the mouth, but primarily takes place in the small intestine by the action of specific enzymes secreted from the pancreas. They are then absorbed into your bloodstream
: Occurs in the stomach and the duodenum occurs in the stomach and duodenum which enzymes secreted by the stomach. They break down food proteins into polypeptides that are then broken down by various exopeptidases and endopeptidases into amino acids. The absorption process occurs in the duodenum or proximal jejunum of the small intestine