Digestive & Urinary System, David Arroyo Period 5 - Coggle Diagram
Digestive & Urinary System, David Arroyo Period 5
Major functions of the digestive system
Absorb molecules into the bloodstream
Rid body of any indigestible remains
Break it down into nutrient molecules
Take in food
Digestive enzymes (including names and functions)
(for proteins): secreted in inactive form to prevent self-digestion
(for nucleic acids)
Major organs of the digestive system
Alimentary canal (gastrointestinal or GI tract or gut)
Continuous muscular tube that runs from the mouth to anus
Digests food: breaks down into smaller fragments
Absorbs fragments through lining into blood
Organs: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus
Accessory digestive organs
Digestive glands: produce secretions that help break down foodstuffs
Pharynx and Esophagus
Food passes from mouth into oropharynx and then into laryngopharynx
External muscle layers consists of two skeletal muscle layers
Allows passage of food, fluids, and air
Flat muscular tube that runs from laryngopharynx to stomach
Gastroesophageal(cardiac) sphincter surrounds cardialorifice
Digestive processes of the Mouth
Pharynx and esophagus are conduits to pass food from mouth to stomach
Major function of both organs is propulsion that starts with deglutition(swallowing)
Stomach is a temporary storage tank that starts chemical breakdown of protein digestion
Bile: Composition and enterohepatic circulation
Gallbladder is a thin-walled muscular sac on ventral surface of liver
Functions to store and concentrate bile by absorbing water and ions
Layers of the GI tract (including stomach)
a thin, delicate membrane of protein fibers and glycosaminoglycans separating an epithelium from underlying tissue.
layer of dense, irregular connective tissue or loose connective tissue that supports the mucosa, as well as joins the mucosa to the bulk of underlying smooth muscle (fibers that run circularly within a layer of longitudinal muscle)
lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs. It consists of one or more layers of epithelial cells overlying a layer of loose connective tissue.
thick aggregated muscle bundles of detrusor muscle; must distinguish from hypertrophic muscularis mucosae.
Disorders of the digestive and urinary systems
presence of blood in a person’s urine
a condition in men in which the prostate gland is enlarged and not cancerous
cannot empty all the urine from your bladder.
chronic, or long-lasting, condition that causes painful urinary symptoms. Researchers don’t know the exact cause of IC.
A kidney stone is a solid, pebble-like piece of material that can form in one or both of your kidneys when high levels of certain minerals are in your urine
unable to get or keep an erection firm enough for satisfactory sexual intercourse
part of your urinary tract can become infected—the urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidneys. Your age, habits, or health conditions can make a UTI more likely.
Major organs of the urinary systems
The gallbladder stores bile produced by the liver
The tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.
The kidneys remove waste products from the blood and produce urine.
Opening in the body that allows waste to exit the body
Location of digestion and absorption of each macromolecule
Large Intestine & Small intestine
Mechanical Digestion includes mixing and propulsion, pimaily by segmentation
Chemical Digestion of Carbohydrates, fats, polypeptides, and nucleic acids
Absorption of peptides, amino acids, glucose, fructose, fats, water, minerals, and vitamins
Mechanical Digestion includes segmental mixing and propulsion
No Chemical digestion
Absorption of ions, water, minerals, vitamins, and organic molecules
Mechanical Digestion includes Peristaltic mixing and propulsion
Chemical digestion of Proteins, Fats
Absorption of lipid-soluble substances such as alcohol and aspirin
Mechanical Digestion includes chewing and swallowing
Chewing digestion of carbohydrates, fates
Major functions of the urinary system