CHAPTER 4 : SYSTEM DESIGN, Definition:-, 4.1.3 User Interface Design…
CHAPTER 4 : SYSTEM DESIGN
4.1 Understand user interface design
describes how users interact with a computer system
consists of all the hardware, software, screens, menus, functions, output,
between the user and the computer
2 Types of User Interface Design
Evolution of the User Interface
the user interface mainly consisted of process-control screens that allowed the user to send commands to the system
Example : User-centered system
information management evolved from centralized data processing to dynamic, enterprise-wide systems
describes the relationship between computers and people who use them to perform their jobs
Most important, the interface will be based on the perspective of a user rather than a computer engineer, programmer, or systems analys
Main objective is to create a user-friendly design that is easy to learn and use
Example : User rights suggested by IBM’s Dr. Clare-Marie Karat.
7 Types of Principles of user centered design
Use Models and Prototypes
It is essential to construct models and prototypes for user approval.
Focus on Usability
The objective is to offer a reasonable number of choices that a user easily can comprehend
Think Like a User
The interface should use terms and metaphors that are familiar to users.
You can determine if system features are being used as intended by observing and surveying users
Maximize Graphical Effectiveness
A well-designed interface can help users learn a new system rapidly, and be more productive
You should document all screen designs for later use by programmers.
Understand the Business
The overall objective is to design an interface that helps users to perform their jobs.
4.1.1 User Interface Design Guidelines
8 Types of user interface design guidelines
Make it easy for users to obtain help or correct errors
Ensure that Help is always available
Minimize input data problems
Build in rules that enforce data integrity
Enhance user productivity
Create alphabetical menu lists
Provide feedback to users
Alert users to lengthy processing times or delay
Create an interface that is easy to learn and use
Make it easy to navigate
Create an attractive layout and design
Use special effects sparingly
Design a transparent interface
Create a design that is easy to learn and remember
Use familiar terms and images
Use familiar commands if possible
Screen Elements & Controls
4.2 Apply input and output design
4.2.1 Input Design & Technology Issues
quality of the output = quality of the input
garbage in, garbage out (GIGO)
4.2.2 Objectives of Input Design
to ensure the quality, accuracy, and timeliness of input data
Good input design requires attention to human factors as well as technology issues
4.2.3 Guidelines For Data Entry Screen Design
Data Entry Screens
Provide a means for users to move among fields on the form
Allow users to add, change, delete, and view records
Do not require users to type trailing zeroes for numbers that include decimals
Design the screen form layout to match the layout of the source document
Restrict user access to screen locations where data is entered
4.2.4 Data Capture vs Data Entry
service in which data is captured via tick or check boxes and other items where areas are filled in with simple lines or shapes in order to get the right answer.
manually entered text, copying exactly what the person who filled out the feedback form has written.
4.2.4 Input & Data Entry Method
first decision is whether to use batch or online input methods
systems analyst must consider the following factors
4.2.5 Input & Data Entry Method
a. Batch Input
data entry is performed on a specified time schedule [ daily, weekly, monthly, or longer ]
example : a school enters all grades for the academic term in a batch
b. Online Input
batch input - used in specific situations
but most business activity requires online data entry
Example: Automatic teller machines (ATMs) that read data strips on bank cards
4.2.6 Input Mask & Validation Rules
8 types of data validation rules
tests data items to verify that they fall between a specified minimum and maximum value
identifies values that are questionable, but not necessarily wrong
Data type check
tests to ensure that a data item fits the required data type
used for data items that must have certain values
used for mandatory data items
performed on 2 or more fields to ensure that they are consistent or reasonable when considered together
used when the data must be in some predetermined sequence
totals used to verify batch input
might check data items such as record counts and numeric field totals
4.1.4 Source Documents
triggers or authorizes an input action
provides a record of the original transaction
collects input data
Layout and design also are important on Web-based forms, and you can find many resources that will help you design efficient, user-friendly forms.
4.2.8 Output Technology
Now, in the systems design phase, you will create the actual forms, reports, documents, and other types of output.
3 system also should consider various types of output technologies
Internet based information delivery
To support the explosive growth in e-commerce, Web designers must provide user-friendly screen interfaces that display output and accept input from customers.
3 Types of internet based information delivery
Employees send and receive e-mail on local or wide area networks, including the Internet
Web-based logs, called blogs, are another form of Web-based output.
This popular form of communication is another way for individuals and companies to communicate effectively over the Internet
Specialized form of output
An incredibly diverse marketplace requires many forms of specialized output and devices
b. Printed reports
4.2.9 Types Of Reports
essential goal when designing report - match the report to the user’s specific information needs
3 Types Of Reports
b. Exception reports
displays only those records that meet a specific condition or conditions
c. Summary reports
Upper-level managers often want to see total figures and do not need supporting details
a. Detail reports
produces one or more lines of output for each record processed
4.2.10 Design Report Principles
to produce a well designed report, the analyst must consider design features such as report headers and footers, page headers and footers, column headings and alignment, column spacing, field order and grouping of detail lines
8 Report Principles
A crowded report is hard to read, and large gaps between columns make it difficult for the eye to follow a line.
Fields should be displayed and grouped in a logical order.
Column heading alignment
Grouping detail lines
You also can have the report calculate and display totals, averages, record counts, and other data for any group or subgroup.
Page headers and footers
Every page should include a page header, which appears at the top of the page and includes the column headings that identify the data
Report design is an art, not a science.
Report headers and footers
Every report should have a report header and a report footer.
A system produces multiple reports, each report should share common design elements.
4.2.12 Input & Output Controls & Security
A company must do everything in its power to protect its data.
Output control & security
Output security protects privacy rights and shields the organization’s proprietary data from theft or unauthorized access.
The IT department is responsible for output control and security measures
Input control & security
Input control includes the necessary measures to ensure that input data is correct, complete, and secure.
Every piece of information should be traceable back to the input data
Data security policies and procedures protect data from loss or damage, which is a vital goal in every organization.
4.1.3 User Interface Design Guidelines