Learning second Languages, from :arrow_left: - Coggle Diagram
Learning second Languages
Theories of cognitive development
continuity in development :recycle:
Construction of knowledge and understanding is a social activity
Social processes of learning between people contribute and complement the internal development.
role of social environment :family:
law of cultural development
zone of proximal development
the relationship between the intermental and intramental processes
role of expert and helpers
they interact and construct new knowledge together.
internalise the knowledge
quality of assistance
effective dialogue accelerates individual learning processes.
pay attention to individual differences.
from the zone of proximal development
guide and support :hearts:
Simplify the task encouragement. :unlock:
peer assistance. :silhouettes:
Joint problem solving (generates new linguistic knowledge) :lock:
local, historical and cultural context.
learning as a shared responsibility
to share and develop knowledge
to organize, plan and review thoughts and actions.
Information processing approach
sustained attention improves with age
Planning makes attention more effective and goal directed.
linear and steep rise in memory store development between 6 and 11.
as processes are executed more efficiently (software) more resource available in the short-term memory.
Mental representations :frame_with_picture:
more perceptually organized :eye:
more conceptually organized representation base. :unlock:
an analogy :computer:
nervous system, brain, sensory receptors, neural connections.
spurts of brain growth
developments in software (mental activities)
mental programmes for remembering, organizing and evaluating incoming information.
increases in L1 development
Piaget’s pre operational to operational shift
abstract thinking and literacy development.
mature adult capacity for reflective thought
Memory strategies :warning:
improve with deliberate learning and training efforts.
Two types of encoding:
gist, fuzzy trace
Useful for reasoning
less mental effort.
stages of strategy development in terms of deficiencies
overlapping wave patterns in the stages. :wavy_dash:
means that there is diversity in children’s thinking.
create mental structures or schemas because of the interaction with the environment.
combined to create more complex ones.
schemas are compared and adjusted to fit with the environment.
interpretation of new knowledge in terms of old models
modification of structures to fit new knowledge.
Invariant stages: :baby::skin-tone-3:
0 - 2
pre-operational stage - 2 - 7
:red_cross: flexible and reversible reasoning
language and imagery as making meaning systems :frame_with_picture:
focus on deficiencies.
:red_cross: rules of formal logic
:red_cross: ability to ‘conserve’
focus on one aspect of the task at a time
concrete operational stage 7 - 11
more than one perspective of a task.
more attentive in group work
formal logic if related to concrete examples and objects in real life
formal operational stage - 11, 12 onwards
generating creative ideas :explode:
cultural practices influence the development of operational thinking
Operational thought developed at different ages cross culturally.
Intellectual revolution seems to be more gradual.
Pre operational children can think in logical ways if tasks are meaningful and are given unambiguous instructions.
Emotional Development :smiley: :cry: :slightly_smiling_face:
success and failure
control of emotions
nature of the relationships
benefits of working with friends
secure and friendly environment.
First and second laguage acquisition in childhood
communication in gaze, eye contact, smile
and proto imperatives
joint attentional behaviours
turn talking and gestures
Related to everyday experience.
Fast pronunciation improvement.
Naming and referring (first with gestures)
extended to abstract categories.
Factors affecting it:
neurological maturation rate
individual and cultural differences
under- extension and overextension
telegraphic speech first
negatives and questions
longer sentences (coordination)
Over extension of rules
reformulation of telegraphic talk into correct utterances.
capacity for abstract
more listener friendly and precise in messages
Types of school talk:
specialized syntactic rules
connectivity in discourse
more than one linguistic form for a function
The critical period hypothesis
after a certain maturation point...
not able to attain native-like levels of proficiency
successful learning: more effort
L2 acquisition is qualitatively different
Younger: no separation between languages
rate of development
older: better at rule acquisition
initial advantage of older learners
then younger learners catch up
younger: better pronunciation and listening
younger learners: an advantage for ultimate attainment
deteriorate across the lifespan
no clear evidence for it's existence
other factors contribute
children's second language acquisition process is different from L1
more horizontal relationships :arrow_backward:
more hierarchical relationships :unlock: