Topic 9: Critical Perspectives on Management Organisations - Coggle Diagram
Topic 9: Critical Perspectives on Management Organisations
Learning Objective 1: An Ideal Worker & The Professional Identity
who is an ideal worker?
• Due to a move towards a 24/7/365 work cycle, employees today are expected to prioritise work ahead of family, personal needs and even health.
• Therefore an ‘ideal worker’ is one who is totally committed to an always available to fulfil his or her work duties.
• Employees who embrace this expectation is richly rewarded, especially those performing professional or managerial jobs.
what is a professional identity?
• Role identities comprise of goals, value, beliefs, norms, interaction styles and time horizons
• Two main forms of professional identities (expected, experienced)
• Organisations employing professionals expect their workers to conform to the ideal worker image
• Conflict arises when a worker’s experienced professional identity does not meet the ideal worker image
Learning Objective 2: How do organisations control employee’s professional identity?
Organisational mechanisms of identity control:
• Structure of work: the successful performance of the professional role been contingent upon always prioritising work demands over all other life demands.
• Performance evaluations: reinforcing the above structure of work by rewarding those who fulfil requirements.
Learning Objective 3: How do employees cope with conflicting professional identities?
Congruence versus conflict:
• If an employees expected, and experienced professional identities are in sync and congruent they are unlikely to experience conflict.
• However, a large percentage of professionals experience conflict between the two identities.
• Historically, researchers and practitioners focused on women, especially those with young children as being the main cohort of professionals who would experience conflict.
How do professionals cope with conflict?
• Professionals cope with conflicting identities by ‘straying’ from the expected identity
• They do so by either passing or revealing
Tools for Straying
• Personally altering the structure of work (i.e. passing)
o Focusing on cultivating a local client base
o Working on internal projects to reduce travel time
o Working from home
• Seeking assistance in restructuring work (i.e. revealing)
o Applying for reduced workloads
o Seeking parental and/or carer’s leave
• Hiding or sharing personal information (i.e. passing and revealing)
Learning Objective 4: Integrated identity management strategies for multiple audiences
Combining passing and revealing:
• Factors influencing the use of passing and/or revealing when interacting with audiences
o Audience status
o Closeness of relationship
o Perceived access to formal accommodations
o Extremity of the conflict experienced
Spillover of perceptions across audiences:
Efforts to pass or reveal to one audience (e.g. high-status) can Spillover and influence the perceptions held of the professional by other audience (e.g. same or low-level)
• Passing to high-status audiences tends to facilitate passing to equal or low-status audiences
• Revealing to close colleagues often results in informal restructuring of work
• Revealing to high-status audiences often results in revealing to broader audiences across the organisation
Learning Objective 5: Consequences of using integrated identity management strategies
o Women less likely to engage with identity management strategies that allows passing to high-status audiences and more likely to reveal
o Men are equally likely to use passing as well as revealing identity management strategies
• Women are more likely to utilise formal accommodations provided of professionals dictate the performance evaluation system
External perceptions and performance evaluation:
• High performance rating given to:
o Those to embrace the expected professional identity
o Those who use passing (especially to senior-status audiences) identity management strategies to cope with conflict
• Low performance rating given to those who use revealing (especially to senior-status audiences) identity management strategies to cope with conflict
High performance rating = improved career path
Low performance rating = unstable career path