(2 (What is CDA?, Macro- vs micro levels of social order, Power as…
What is CDA?
:check: studies how the abuse of social power, dominance, inequality are enacted, reproduced and resisted in the text and talk in the social and political context.
:check: wants to understand, expose and resist social inequaliy.
:check: is interdisciplinary.(doesn’t have its unitary theoretical framework) (uses different methods from other discipline)
linguistics (looks at language),
sociology (looks at how home language is used in social interaction),
political science (it looks at how language is used in political influence),
cultural studies (it looks at how language is used in order to convey and reinforce culturally significant information).
discourse or language used in its social context. (IN THE CENTRE)
Fairclough and Wodak (1997, p. 271-80) summarize the main principles of CDA.
• CDA addresses social problems
• Power relations are discursive (involving discussion)
• Discourse constitutes(form) society and culture
• Discourse does ideological work
• Discourse is historical
• The link between text and society is mediated (means face to face?)
• Discourse analysis is interpretative and explanatory
• Discourse is a form of social action.
:check: aims to offer a different "mode" or "perspective" of theorizing, analysis, and application throughout the whole field. We may find a more or less critical perspective in such areas as: pragmatics, conversation analysis, narrative analysis, rhetoric, stylistics, sociolinguistics, ethnography, or media analysis, among others
:check: the typical vocabulary of many scholars in CDA will feature such notions as "power," "dominance," "hegemony," "ideology," "class," "gender," "race," "discrimination," "interests," "reproduction," "institutions," "social structure," and "social order," besides the more familiar discourse analytical notions
- Mode - a way of operating, living, or behaving:
Critical - saying that someone or something is bad or wrong:
Perspective - a particular way of considering something:
Hindrance - something that makes it more difficult for you to do something or for something to develop:
framework a system of rules, ideas, or beliefs that is used to plan or decide something:
- Inequality - the unfair situation in society when some people have more opportunities, money, etc. than other people:
Enact- to put something into action, especially to make something law:
Reinforce - If something reinforces an idea or opinion, it provides more proof or support for it and makes it seem true:
Interpretative - related to explaining or understanding the meaning of something:
Power as control
the social power of groups
:check: are the central notion(idea) of CDA
:check: means – control because if groups are able to gain control over the acts and minds of the members of other groups then they will have more power.
In order to gain control they should have access to social resources (force, money, status, fame, knowledge, information, culture, or various forms of public discourse and communication).
that's why we have power based on this resources, e.g. military, financial or informational.
This power is rarely absolute, and the dominated group may resist, accept, make it legal (legitimate) and even find it “natural”.
We can see the power of dominant groups in
:check: obviously abusive acts laws, rules, norms, habits etc. take the form of “hegemony”.
Class domination, sexism, and racism are characteristic examples of such hegemony.
:check: in taken-for-granted actions of everyday life.
Similarly, not all members of a powerful group are always more powerful than all members of dominated groups: power is only defined here for groups as a whole.
the most important symbolic control is access to the control of public discource.
:check: powerful groups have access to public discources (teachers, lawyers, journalists, politicians) and can control it, telling ordinary people what to believe and what to do.
:check: public discourse control the less powerful groups,
ordinary people have
:check: active control over their discourse with family, friends, colleagues,
:check: passive control over media discourse because they are passive targets of text or talk.
context and structure can be controlled
consists of categories and powerful group may gain control over one of those categories
:check: (deciding) the overall definition of the situation,
:check: (deciding) setting (time, place),
:check: (deciding) ongoing actions (including discourses and discourse genres),
:check: participants in various communicative, (which participants may or must be present)
:check: social, or institutional roles, (what knowledge or opinions they should (not) have)
:check: mental representations: goals, knowledge, opinions, attitudes, and ideologies.
- Powerful groups can control the structure of the text and talks.
:check: teacher or judge may require a direct answer from a student or suspect, and not a personal story or an argument.
:check: powerful speakers may abuse their power
e.g when police officers use force to get a confession from a suspect,
e.g when male editors exclude women from writing economic news.
:check: genres typically have conventional(ordinary) schemas consisting of various categories.
Access to some of these may be prohibited or obligatory.
e.g. some greetings in a conversation may only be used by speakers of a specific social group, rank, age, or gender.
- Who controls the topics (semantic macrostructures) and topic change,
:check: editors decide what news topics will be covered,
:check: professors decide what topics will be dealt with in class,
:check: men control topics and topic change in conversations with women.
most discourse control is contextual or global,
:check: local details of meaning, form, or style may be controlled,
e.g. the details of an answer in class or court,
e.g choice of lexical items or jargon in courtrooms, classrooms or newsrooms.
e.g volume may be controlled and speakers ordered to “keep their voice down” or to “keep quiet”.
e.g the public use of specific words may be banned during a dictatorship,
e.g and discursive challenges to culturally dominant groups (e.g. white, western males) by their multicultural opponents may be ridiculed in the media as “politically correct”.
:check: action and interaction dimensions of discourse may be controlled
e.g prescribing specific speech acts,
e.g. selectively distributing or interrupting turns.
All levels and structures of context, text, and talk can be controlled by powerful speakers, and such power may be abused at the expense of other participants.
:!?::!!! talk and text do not always and directly enact the power relations between groups. it is always the context that may interfere with, reinforce, or otherwise transform such relationships.
- Deine - to describe something correctly and thoroughly, and to say what standards, limits, qualities etc it has that make it different from other things to explain and describe the meaning and exact limits of something.
Legitimate - to make something legal or acceptable
Consensus - a generally accepted opinion or decision among a group of people.
Hegemony - (especially of countries) the position of being the strongest and most powerful and therefore able to control others.
- enactment = exercise
dimension - a part or quality of a thing or situation that has an effect on the way you think about it:
- power and dominance are involved in mind control.
:check: recipients accept beliefs, knowledge, opinions (unless they are contradict with their personal beliefs and experiences) through discourse from as they think as authoritative, trustworthy, credible sources (scholars, experts, professionals, or reliable media)
:check: in some situations participants must be recipients of discourse. They need to listen to it, interpred and learned.
e.g. in education and in many job situations (lessons, learning materials, job instructions)
:check: in many situations there are no public discourses or media that may provide information from which alternative beliefs may be derived.
:check: recipients may not have the knowledge and beliefs needed to challenge the discourses or information they are exposed to.
- :check: Contextual mind control - say something about the participants of a communicative event
:check: Discursive mind control - structures and strategies of text end talks themselves
structure influence mental representations.
topics may influence what people see as the most important information of text or talk.
e.g expressing such a topic in a headline in news may influence how an event is defined in terms of a “preferred” mental model (e.g. when crime committed by minorities is typically topicalized and headlined in the press) argumentation may be persuasive because of the social opinions that are “hidden” in its implicit premises and thus taken for granted by the recipients.
a typical feature of manipulation is to communicate beliefs implicitly, that is, without actually asserting them,
Contextually control are important because people understand not only text and talk, but also the whole communicative situation.
CDA studies how context features (such as the properties of ppl of powerful groups) influence the communicative situation in “preferred context models”.
If dominant groups, and especially their elites, largely control public discourse and its structures, they have more control over the minds of the public at large. However, such control has its limits.
The complexity of comprehension, and the formation and change of beliefs, are such that one cannot always predict which features of a specific text or talk will have which effects on the minds of specific recipients.
- Forms of power:
controlling ppls mind
(reproduce dominance and hegemony)
Forms of media
- Tomi Ahonen (2008) defines the main form of mass media (“seven mass media”) in his book “Mobile as the 7th of the mass media”. (This classification does not cover all the aspects of mass media. It may serve as a useful basis for a better understanding of the general picture of mass media.)
:check: Printed media (newspapers and magazines)
:check: Recordings (a type of broadcast that has been recorded earlier and played later, i.e. not live)
first there were gramophone records (at the end of the XIX century), then CDs and DVDs,
now we have everything is digital forms.
:check: Cinema (used since about 1900)
This was the first form of multimedia, as it used both visual and audio signals.
:check: Radio broadcasting (since 1910). the information was transmitted live and non-stop. The audience could receive the transmission simultaneously.
:check: Television (appeared in the middle of the XX century) a combination of the two previous forms: the visual signal (like in the cinema) could be broadcast to large audiences (like in the radio).
:check: Internet. (started to be used ce in the 199ies)
includes all the previous media forms (read newspapers, listen to music, watch films or follow TV and radio broadcasts on the internet)
People may take part in the internet communication - the reciprocal nature of the internet (commenting the news, posting their own ideas on blogs, or videos on YouTube)
We can search for the information we need, and choose from an almost unlimited number of sources
We can join social networks, and interact in new ways.
:check: Mobile (have been used since at least 1979,in last decaded they started to be used on a level that could be comparable with the other media forms)
Include all the previous media form, the internet, + several distinctive features:
thay are personal (computers could be considered semi-personal, as even now there are shared computers in internet cafes or at work).
mobile phones are always on and personally carried
a personal built-in payment system, mobile has the most accurate audience measurement, and it captures the social context of media consumption.
The newest technological advances (video camera, audio recording, social networks etc.)
- Social media
function both in the internet and in the mobile phone.
The differe from newspapers or TV channels is the personal nature of social networks (everyone can create their own news or entertainment, everyone can express their own opinion + you can see how popular the source by the number of followers, you can interact online, you can receive and transmit the news without any delays)
:<3:Binary opposition – a pair of direct opposites such as good and evil, white and black or male and female.
:check: Blog (from weblog) – a frequently updated personal journal on a website, intended for public viewing.
:check: Boxout – something like square-shaped element that contains text or graphics. It is separated from the main text on a magazine, newspaper or web-page. Usually contains information separate from the main content/article whilst being connected to it (for example, statistics, web-links or glossaries).
:check: Heading – (малі заголовки до абзаців навприклад) a title for a paragraph, section, chapter or page.
:check: Headline – (великий заголовок) a title printed across a page or before a newspaper article, usually in larger heavier letters and indicating what follows it.
:check: Hypertext – a piece of highlighted text on a webpage that can be clicked on to link to another page.
:<3: Editorial –
1) all copy in a newspaper or magazine with no advertising content
2) called leader - a column in a newspaper giving opinion on news items covered elsewhere in that issue.
:<3: Feature –
1) a newspaper article that is longer and more descriptive than a news story, containing more background and colour
2) an item for a radio or television programme, usually consisting of interviews, actuality(дійсність) and links edited together.
:check: Ideology – the system of values and beliefs which an individual, group or society holds to be true or important. The media is one agent that perpetuates(увічнюють) these within a society, as are the government, the church, the education system and others.
:check: Interactive – referring to a system or piece of software that allows communication between the user and the computer in conversational mode.
:<3: Intertextuality – the theory that all media texts are interrelated, and can only be defined by their relations with others.
:<3: Lead – the main story on the front page of a newspaper.
1) in cultural theory, the process by which texts and media products are analysed through an intermediary ‘structure’, for example conventions of genre, form of production
2) in cultural theory, the idea that texts interpret and hide meaning, and present it in a ‘mediated’ state, i.e. one that is not to be trusted.
:check: Meme (also internet meme) – something such as a person, site or image that captures the attention of multiple Internet users and becomes a fad that quickly spreads. Viral advertising tries to take advantage of this.
:check: Podcasting – the act of offering audio or video files over the Internet to subscribing users.
:<3: Representation – the way in which a particular group or section of society is presented on screen or the image that is created of them.
:check: Semiotics – the study of the way in which signs and symbols are used to create systems of social meaning.
1) a short news story containing additional relevant information that is printed beside a featured story
2) a block of text set beside the main text in a web document.
:<3: Sound bite –
1) a short extract from an interview or speech
2) a short, succinct(стисла) quote.
:check: Stream – a video or audio broadcast made via the Internet or a computer network in real time.
:check: Target audience – the people who receive a media product, or at whom a piece of advertising is aimed.
- ways and methods through which media can achieve the influence on the public.
ppl not always aware of this influence.
media shapes the way we see the world around us.
:check: the “distorted” picture of the world was shown.
:check: we don’t hear news from other countries because
1) componies reduced the number of foreign news.
2) It’s more expencive than covering Britny spears
3) A lot of ppl see local TV news, but this channel dedicates 12% to international news.
4) a lot of news from US news creators is recycled stories from AP services.
There was a resurce, where pll analyse 14 000 stories that appeared on Goggle news in the front page and they cover the same 24 news events.
:check: Ppl are less educated in news not because they are not interested, it is because they get such news.