CHAPTER 2: 2.1 THE BASIC PLANNING PROCESS - Coggle Diagram
CHAPTER 2: 2.1 THE BASIC PLANNING PROCESS
BASIC PLAN PROCESS
Data Gathering-Data Analysis-Goals and Objectives Setting-Generation of Alternatives-Evaluation and Selection of Preferred Alternatives-Detailing and Refinement of Preferred Strategies-Plan Adoption-Plan Implementation-Monitoring and Evaluation
TOURISM PLANNING APPROACHES
*There are four (4) broad traditions of tourism planning identified by Getz (1987).
*The four traditions are not mutually exclusive, nor are they necessarily sequential.
*Nevertheless, this categorization is a convenient way to examine the different and sometimes overlapping ways in which tourism is planned, and the research and planning methods, problems and models associated with each.
TOURISM PLANNING APPROACH: BOOSTERISM
*It is a simplistic attitude that tourism development is inherently good and of automatic benefit to the hosts.
*Little consideration is given to the potential negative economic, social and environmental impacts of tourism and instead cultural and natural resources are regarded as objects to be exploited for the sake of tourism development.
*Has long been the dominant tradition towards tourism development and planning since mass tourism began.
Under the boosterism tradition, residents of tourist destinations are not involved in the decision making and planning process surrounding tourism development and those who oppose such development may be regarded as unpatriotic or excessively negative.
In recent years, boosterism is probably best noted in the hosting of mega events such as Olympics Games, in which such large events are held to be automatically good for the host city and region (Olds,1998).
“Boosterism” is still practiced and always will be, by two groups of people; politicians who philosophically believe that economic growth is always to be promoted, and by others who will gain financially by tourism. They will go on promoting it until the evidence mounts that they have run out of resources to exploit, that the real or opportunity costs are too high, or that political opposition to growth can no longer be countered. By then the real damage has usually been done….” (Getz, 1987:10).
TOURISM PLANNING APPROACH: ECONOMIC, INDUSTRY-ORIENTED APPROACH
Tourism is seen as an industry which can be used as a tool by governments to achieve certain goals of economic growth and restructuring, employment generation, and regional development through the provision of financial incentives, research, marketing and promotional assistance.
Within the economic tradition, government utilizes tourism as a means to promote growth & development in specific areas.
*Therefore, the planning emphasize is on the economic impacts of tourism and its most efficient use to create income and employment benefits for regions communities.
*One of the main characteristics of the economic approach is the use of marketing and promotion to attract the type of visitors who will provide the greatest economic benefits to the destination.
*Economic goals are given priority over social & ecological questions. Under this approach, the issue of who benefits and who loses from tourism development does not usually arise.
TOURISM PLANNING APPROACH: PHYSICAL/SPATIAL APPROACH
The physical/spatial approach has its origins in the work of geographers, urban and regional land-use planners and conservationists who advocate a rational approach to the planning of natural resources
*Land use planning is one of the oldest forms of environmental protection
*Physical/spatial planning refers to ‘planning with a spatial, or geographical, component, in which the general objective is to provide for a spatial structure of activities (or of land use) which in some way is better than the pattern existing without planning (Hall, 1992:4)
3 more items...
2.2 APPROACHES TO TOURISM PLANNING
CONTEMPORARY PLANNING APPROACHES & TECHNIQUES
Previously, a lot of emphasis was placed of the end state Master Plan which was assumed to be sufficient.
*But, it was found to be too rigid, not taking account on changing lifestyle, technology, etc. (not suitable to be implemented over long term period).
*NOW, the general approach being applied:
*Planning is continuous.
*Must be flexible and yet still meet basic development objectives.
*Planning should be done incrementally with continuous monitoring and feedback on effects of previous development and evaluation of new trends.
ELEMENTS OF BASIC TOURISM PLANNING APPROACH
*In order to achieve effective development patterns and not generating environmental problem or social ills, all aspects of the area or development sector being planned must be understood and carefully integrated (the system approach).
*An important aspects of planning is to involve the community in the planning process and decision making because they should be given the opportunity to participate in the planning of its future development.
*There is also a great concern on the environment resulting from development practices - sustainable tourism; “sustaining the resources of development from depletion so that they are available for continuing and permanent use in the future”.
TOURISM PLANNING APPROACH: COMMUNITY-ORIENTED APPROACH
*Since the late 1970s increasing attention has come to be given to the negative environmental & social impacts of tourism.
Although the negative effects of tourism was initially associated with the less developed nations, it was gradually recognized that as tourism grew undesirable impacts were also occurring in the developed nations.
*Therefore, an examination of the social impacts of tourism became to be regarded as essential not only from an ethical perspective of the need for community involvement in decision making processes but also because without it, tourism growth and development may become increasingly difficult.
*In response to the perceived negative effects of tourism development, alternative strategies of tourism development were espoused (such ecotourism). Tourism development should aim to:
*Provide a framework for raising the living standard of local people through the economic benefits of tourism
*Develop an infrastructure & provide recreation facilities for both residents and visitors.
*Ensure that the types of development within visitor centers and resorts are appropriate to the purposes of these areas.
*Establish a development program that is consistent with the cultural, social and economic philosophy of the government and the people of the host area.
*Optimize visitor satisfaction.
Cooke’s (1982) identified several sets of conditions that are appropriate and inappropriate to local tourism development.
*Conditions associated with locally appropriate tourism development:
2 more items...
*Cooke’s study recommended that all tourism planning should be based on the goals and priorities of residents.
*She even went further and recommended that local attractions be promoted only when endorsed by residents.
*However, the practical exercise of such approach will have substantial implications for tourism development which could even mean stopping certain types of development.
*A community approach to tourism planning is therefore a ‘bottom up’ form of planning, which emphasizes development in the community rather than development of the community
*Under this approach, residents are regarded as the focal point of the tourism planning exercise, not the tourists, and the community, which is often equated with a region of local government, is regarded as the basic planning unit.
*Nevertheless, substantial difficulties will arise in attempting to implement the concept of community planning in tourist destination.
*One of the major difficulties in implementing a community approach to tourism planning is the political nature of the planning process.
*Such approach has generally not been adopted by some government authorities because of complaints from business interests of the economic impact of decision making delays which arise out of any statuary requirement for participation.
*Besides, the direction of decisions has already been prescribed by government and communities rarely have the opportunity to say no.
1.Continuous, incremental and flexible – although still based on adopted policy and plan, tourism planning is seen as a continuous process with adjustments made as needed based on monitoring and feedback, and at the same time maintain the basic objectives and policies of tourism development.
2.Systems approach – tourism is viewed as an interrelated system and should be planned as such, utilizing systems
3.Comprehensive approach – related to the systems approach, all aspects of tourism development, including its institutional elements & environmental and sociocultural implications are analyzed and planned comprehensively, that is a holistic approach
4.Integrated approach – related to the systems & comprehensive approach, tourism is planned and developed as system within itself and also is integrated into the overall plan and total development patterns of the area
5.Environmental & sustainable development approach – tourism is planned, developed and managed in such a manner that its natural & cultural resources are not depleted/degraded, but maintained as viable resources on a permanent basis for continuous future use.
6.Community approach – there is a maximum involvement of the local community in the planning and decision making process and also maximum participation in the actual development and management of tourism & socioeconomic benefits.
7.Implementable approach – the tourism development policy, plan, and recommendations are formulated to be realistic and implementable, with the techniques, action program and strategies identified.
8.Systematic planning process – the process is applied in tourism planning based on logical sequence activities.
TOURISM PLANNING PROCESS
Study Preparation-Determination of Development Objectives-Surveys and Evaluations-Analysis and Synthesis-Policy and Plan Formulation-Recommendation-Implementation
The decision has been made by the government, in consultation with the private sector & general public through its institutional process, to develop tourism, or expand or improve its present development, in a planned manner.
Any issues relative to economic, environmental & social costs and benefits of developing or expanding tourism-then a prefeasibility assessment should be carried out.
Plans should have a horizon year-indicating when the plan and its targets and recommendations are to be realized; provide a time framework for making projections, setting targets and staging development.
Time framework-long range involved 15-20 years, while short range less than 5 years but should be flexible (short term vs long term).
2.Determination of goals & objectives
Goals & objectives indicates the desired results of developing tourism.
Study on economic benefits, minimizing environmental & sociocultural impacts.
Objectives should be decided at the commencement of the study because they will influence the types of surveys & analyses and formulation of the policy, plan and recommendations.
After the analysis has been completed during formulation of policy, plan and other recommendations, there is feedback to the objectives-to determine whether the objectives are being achieved.
If it is found that some objectives are incompatible, alternative plans to reach the different objectives can be prepared & presented to the policy makers before a decision is made on which plan & related objectives to finalize.
Involves collecting data, both quantitative and qualitative.
Tourist market survey on tourist arrivals and characteristics;
Place of origin-the nationality & the country of residence (very useful for marketing purposes).
Purpose of visit-includes the categories of holiday, business, study or visiting friends.
Length of stay-based on the number of nights spend in the area (important in determining the extent of facility use & expenditure of tourists).
Age, sex and number of family members traveling together.
Type of employment and income levels.
Where travelled & stayed during the visit.
Number of times visited.
Visitor attitudes and satisfaction level.
Analysis & Synthesis
Both quantitative & qualitative analysis & synthesis (combination and integration of the various components of the analysis) of the survey information must be carefully done.
An important type of synthesis is the identification of the major opportunities & problems or constraints for developing tourism in an area.
These opportunities & constraints provide much of the foundation for determining future tourism development.
The analysis & synthesis phase is a major activity, which usually requires considerable time & specialized capabilities.
The quality & extent of analysis very much depend on the availability of adequate & accurate survey data.
Policy & Plan Formulation * Normally lead by the government-can be encourage or discourage the development of tourism.
Focus on domestic tourism or international tourism.
The reasons of development should be stated in policy-economic reasons, social reason, to achieve environmental conservation, etc.
Type of tourism to be develops, location and staging development.
Any recommendation on enhancement of destination areas, integration of tourist trail, improvement of tourism bases, development of entry points, promoting or marketing strategy for the destinations.
The alternative plans are evaluate in terms of their potential economic. Physical and sociocultural costs & benefits.
The plan that achieves the most objectives while not exposing the destination to potentially serious problems is then selected and then drawn up in full.
*The completed plan is submitted to the authorities together with selection of recommendation concerning the optimum methods of developing tourism in the destination and achieving the plan's objectives.
For some types of recommendations, alternatives must also be evaluated before the most suitable ones can be determined.
For some elements of the plan, no changes to the existing situation may be necessary, but that fact must be stated.
The method of implementing the development plan will be consider throughout most stages of its construction.
Thus, by the time that the implementation stage is reach, all the necessary legislation and regulation controls will be bring into effect (implementable).
Also known as action plan.
Monitoring & Reformation
Once the development plan is implemented, it must be monitor closely in order to defect any deviations, which may occur from the projected path of development.
Any deviations, which may occur from the projected path of development.
These deviations must be analysed in order to assess how they will affect the development plan and its objectives.
Thus, any recommendation and measure can be prepared in order to stay on target.
Strategize tourism development is crucial in order to ensure resources sustainability (tourism resources are maintained and not destroyed) while getting the benefits from the tourism industry.