Contrast 2 models of memory, image , image , image - Coggle Diagram
Contrast 2 models of memory
Memory is a complex cognitive process which involves the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information. Memory can be divided into 2 main categories.
Explicit memory is the conscious memory involving factual knowledge and autobiographical memory.
Implicit memory is the unconscious memory including skills and habits.
To explain memory, Atkinson and Shriffrin proposed a multistory model. This model was first to distinguish between short term and long term memory.
Later, Badly and Hitch proposed an alternative model of short term memory named the working memory model.
This essay will explore the differences between the 2 models of memory.
One model of memory is the MSM proposed by Atkinson and Shriffrin
MSM explains how information flows through three stores: sensory memory, STM and LTM, each having different capacities and durations.
Model explains that memory is first taken through our senses. This information enters our sensory register, where if attended to, passes to short term memory. The sensory register has unlimited capacity and information is displaced if not paid attention to.
STM is limited in duration and capacity. According to Miller, STM can only hold 7 ±2 pieces of information and lasts 6-12 seconds.
When information in STM is rehearsed it enter LTM in a process called "encoding".
LTM is unlimited in capacity and has a long-lasting duration.
When we recall information, it is retrieved from LTm and moved back to STM.
One study that shows the existence of separate memory stores is Glanzer and Cunitz.
Aim : to investigate process of STM and LTM
46 male participants were shown 15 lists of 15 words at one time and had to recall words under 3 conditions :
Immediate recall, recall after 10 seconds, recall after 30 seconds.
Results : First 5 and last 2 words were recalled best in immediate recall. In recall after 10-30 seconds, there was little effect on words at the beginning go the list but there wasp or recall of later items.
This is because the 10-30 second delay between presentation and recall provided enough time for the displacement of memory in STM
Conclusion : results show support for 2 distinct storage mechanisms. Participant showed ability to recall words at the beginning of the list as the information has already transferred to LTM. This is called the primacy effect. The ability to recall words that have been just spoken as they are still in STM is called recency effect.
Another model of memory is the Working Memory Model by Badly and Hitch
The WMM is composed of the central executive which monitors and directs the activity of 3 different stores : the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and the episodic buffer.
Phonoloigcal loop : deals with spoken and written material.
Consists of 3 parts : phonological loop (holds information in speech-based form for 1-2 seconds)
articulacy control system : converts written words into spoken code so they can enter the phonological loop
Visuospatial sketchpad : deals with visual appearance of items - allows people to picture things in their mind so that recall is visually aided by the inner scribe.
All of this information is organized by the episodic buffer which arranges all information into easily understood sequences, communicating with STM and LTM.
The last part of the model consist of the LTM identical to MSM, rehearsal of STM will enter LTM
One study that supports the WMM is Robins et al.
Aim : to investigate the role of WMM on chess moves
20 male participants from Cambridge city and university chess clubs were recruited.
Participants were given 10 seconds to memorize the placings of the chess pieces to recreate the exact placing of each piece in 2 conditions.
Articulary loop suppression : repeat the words 'the'
Visuospatial Sketchpad suppression : press keys on a calculator to the metronome.
Results : participants in visuospatial sketchad suppression performed worse than those in articulacy loop suppression. This is because visual suppression creates an overload effect, blocking operation of visuospatial sketchpad.
Conclusion : robbins est al study demonstrates that WMM for Ches positions does not appear to be affected by verbal processing suppression but for visuospatial suppression.
Supports idea of different slave systems within WMM.