Critique of Current Thinking in Sustainable Tourism - Coggle Diagram
Critique of Current Thinking in Sustainable Tourism
Value Judgements and the Lacks of Factual Evidence
The key issues in the sustainable tourism debate
Lack of performance indicators
Principle of partnership
Value judgement and lack of factual evidence
Foreign influence in developing countries
Emphasis on the physical environment
The green tourist
Community involvement and local control
De-marketing - places, time, people
Self-contained resort complexes
Concept of carrying capacity
Power without responsibility
Role of public sector planning
Role of industry
Tourist taxes and fair pairing
The ethics and practicalities of conservation
Private versus public transport
The Role of Public Sector Planning
skepticism about state planning and its alleged lack of achievement , the climate of de-regulation and pritization, the dislike of planning in Eastern Europe and the growing power of transnational corporations.
tourism products- accommodation, tour operation, visitor attractions and bar, night clubs
The Concept of Carrying Capacity
Physical capacity- the number of tourisms a place can physically accommodate.
Environmental or Ecological capacity- the number of tourists that can be accommodated before damage begins to be caused to the environment or ecosystem
Economic capacity- the number of tourists that can be welcomed before the local community start to suffer economic problems, e.g. increased housing values and land prices
Social capacity- the number of people beyond which social disruption or irrevocable cultural damage will occur
perceptual capacity- the number of people a place can welcome before the quality of the tourist experience begins to be adversely affected
Infrastructure capacity- the number of tourists that can be accommodated by the destination infrastructure.
prove to be ineffective
Many tourist become aware of destinations from sources other than promotional literature produced by the destinations themselves. it includes friends and relatives, the media, the tourist industry such as coach operators
-Repeat visitors are already aware of the destinations
Business tourist do not choose their destinations, it is determined by the demands of their jobs, whether it be a visit by a sales person to a potential client or a lecturer attending a specialist conference.
Demand might be reduced
only allowing a certain number of people into the city per day through a ticket system.
Tourist Taxes and Fair Pricing
Develop by two main ways - 1. Charging tourist taxes 2. using the funds generated by taxes to help pay for the maintenance and development of the local tourism infrastructure
Implementing the former approach - 1. to reduce demand at unique destinations require a high tourist tax, 2. reduce a destination's visitor numbers with serious economic costs, 3. the mechanism for implementing the tax would be complex and costly, 4. all tourists are equal in terms of their impact and does not encourage responsible behavior or penalize anti-social behavior, 5. inadequate understanding of carrying capacities , 6. need constantly changing the rate of the tax
The tax has three main problems - as it is largely only collected in hotels, the collection of the tax is often seen as an imposition by the hotelier and as the rate is very low, typically 2-5 francs per person
Honey-pot areas, and involves initiatives like: 1. using interpretation techniques to try to direct demand to less heavily used areas of the region, 2. closing roads from time to time and/or sitting car parks, so that visitors cannot drive already overcrowded
Private versus Public Transport
the private car has been seen as a enemy because there have negative impacts of presence of cars. The reasons why tourist like private car is because tourist enjoy flexibility and freedom, public transport systems are often inconvenient and subsidies for public transport have been declining.
Community Involvement and Local Control
The problem to achieve this aim - 1. communities rarely if ever speak with one piece, 2. the mechanism that are used to elicit the views of the community provide an opportunity for a minority, 3. professionals can sometimes under value or even ignore local views, 4. conflicts that debate causes within communities
the power of the tourism industry, central government policies and funding may over-rule local preferences, externally based organizations may already have a strong voice in the area.
The green tourist
the consumer boycott of product containing CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons)
switching from the use of private cars to public transport for their holiday trip
demonstrating against the environmental impacts of new theme parks
insisting that hotels recycle waste