The Reproductive System; Alyssa Najarro P.1 - Coggle Diagram
The Reproductive System; Alyssa Najarro P.1
Functions of the Reproductive System
The Reproductive System system doesn't function like the other organ systems because it isn't active until puberty.
Male and females reproductive organs quite different but share the same four functions.
Form specialized cells for sexual reproduction call
-gametes in females
-gametes in females
Bring gametes from male and female together through sexual intercourse
Combine genetic information contained within gametes through
is formed when a sperm and an egg fuse
A zygote is the first cell of new individual and all body cells form from it
Support development of a fetus and birth of a baby
Gonads and Accessory Reproductive Organs
Male and female reproductive structures are
sharing a common origin during development.
Reproductive Hormone Secretion
Hypothalamus, Pituitary, and Gonadal Axis
; Testosterone (males) and Estrogens and Progesterones (females)- acting at target tissues in the body. Exerting negative feedback on hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
Follicle-stimulatory hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone
- gonadotropins release from the anterior pituitary
- are released from gonads of both males and females exerting negative feedback on FSH release from the anterior pituitary
- the cleansing hormone (GnRH)
-Released from the hypothalamus then reaches pituitary cells via hypophyseal portal system
Effects of Estrogen and Progesterones
Maintains low cholesterol and high HDC levels, facilates calcium uptakes
-Growth of breasts
-Increased deposit of subcutaneous fat such as hips and breasts
-widening and lightening of pelvis
-Estrogen also has metabolic effects
promote oogenesis and follicle growth in the ovary. Exerting anabolic effect on female reproductive tract. It induces secondary sex characteristics and support rapid short lived growth spurt at puberty
Promotes changes in cervical mucus
Works with estrogen to establish and regulate uterine cycle
Effects of placental progesterone luring pregnancy
Inhibits uterine motility and help prepare breasts for lactation
Primary Sex Organs (gonads)
- testes (males) and ovaries (females) produce two products;
; sperm (males) and ova (females)
Gametes are formed by cell division called meiosis
Sex Hormones (steroid hormones)
; Testosterone (males) and Estrogens and Progesterones (females)
These hormones are vital in development and functions of the reproductive organs and other organs/tissues, sexual behavior and sexual drives
Accessory reproductive organs
include ducts, glands, and external genetalia
Male Reproductive System
Male Duct System
- carry sperm from testes to the body exterior.
Epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra
Male Accessory Glands
is a milky white mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions.
2-5 ml of semen are ejaculated containing 20-150 million sperm. It contains fructose for ATP production protecting and activating sperm and sperm movements.
neutralizes acidity of the male urethra and female vagina enhancing motility
is the process of forming male gametes and occurs in the seminiferous tubules beginning at puberty around 14 years old
Adults males make about 90 million sperm daily
Takes 64-72 days if the conditions are stable
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encircles the urethra inferior to the bladder. Consisting of a smooth muscle that contracts during ejaculation.
Secreting milky, slightly acidic fluid also containing citrate, enzymes, and prostate-specific antigens.
It contributes in the role of sperm activation and enters prostatic urethra during ejaculation making up 1/3 of the semen volume
Ducts of the seminal glands joins ductus deferens to form ejaculatory duct
producing thick, clear mucus during sexual arousal lubricating glans penis. Also neutralizing traces of acidic urine in the urethra
contain smooth muscles that contracts during ejaculation producing viscous alkaline seminal fluid. Fructose, citric acid, congulating enzymez, and prostaglandins comprising 70% volume of semen
Prepuce or foreskin
- is the cuff of loose skin covering the glans
is a surgical removal of the foreskin
It consists of the root and shaft that ends in
Internally the penis is made up of connective tissue and smooth muscle with vascular spaces;
- surrounds the urethra and expands to form glans and
bulbs of penis
are paired dorsal erectile bodies
is erectile tissue filling with blood causing the penis to enlarge and become rigid
is the male copulatory organ and one of the two
, the other being the scrotum
is cutting and ligating the ductus deferens and is a nearly 100% effective form of birth control
Ductus Deferens (vas deferens)
is 45 cm long passing through inguinal canal to the pelvic cavity. It then joins the duct of seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct. The smooth muscle in the walls propels sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
conveys both urine and semen at different times
The septa divided the testes into 250 lobules, each containing one-four
Each testis is surrounded by two tunics;
- the outermost layer derived from peritoneum
- the inner layer forms fibrous capsule
The site for sperm production and sperm is conveyed from the seminiferous tubules to straight tubule ->
is made up of the head, the body, and the tail where sperm is held in the tail until ejaculation
encloses nerve fibers, blood vessels, and lymphatic that supply testes
mature in the epididymis and is highly coiled. Passing slowly through at a rate that usually takes 20 days which is when they finally gain the ability to swim and can be stored for several months. During ejaculation, epididymis contracts, expelling sperm into the ductus deferens
Contains paired testes and is 3C lower than the core body temperature. A lower temperature is necessary for sperm production otherwise the scrotum is affected by temperature changes
The sac of skin and superficial fascia which hangs outside abdominopelvic cavity at root of penis
The midline septum divides the scrotum into two compartments, one for each testes.
is delivered to the body through the system of ducts;
are sperm producing male gonads that lie within the scrotum
- a duct behind the testis, where sperm passes to the vas deferens and is made up of the head, the body, and the tail.
II. Ductus Deferens
- are 45 cm long and passes through the inguinal canal to the pelvic cavity. Joining the duct of seminal vesicle to form
III. Ejaculatory Duct
- a smooth muscle in the walls and propels sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
- Conveys both urine and semen at different times
Disorders associated with the reproductive system (including STI’s)
is a rare but the most common cancer in men ages 15-33 having mumps that lead to orchitis which is the inflammation of testis which could be a risk factor
is the most common risk factor which is the non descent of the testes
are painless and solid mass in the testis
90% curable by surgical removal of testis and often radiation or chemotherapy
is the swelling and inflammation of the prostate gland. Prostatitis often causes painful or difficult urination.
is the 3rd most common cause of cancer death in males that affects one in six men in the U.S.
Digital exam screening, PSA levels can be checked by having a high rate of false positives.
Treated with surgery and sometimes radiation.
Metastatic prostate cancer is treated with drugs that block testosterone synthesis or action.
affects 450k women worldwide each year killing half of them. It is most common in women ages 30-50.
Risks are frequent cervical inflammation, STI's, including HPV, or multiple pregnancies
is a three dose vaccine that protects against HPV recommended for young girls ages 11-12 years old.
for detection recommended every 3 years for ages 21-30. Every 5 years for ages 30-65 but include HPV testing discontinuing at 65, after a hysterectomy, or with sexual inactivity
Invasive breast cancer is the most common malignancy and second most common cause of cancer death in US women.
13% of women will develop the condition usually arising from epithelial cells of smallest ducts that eventually metastasize
STIs and reproductive disorders
STIs are also called
Sexually transmitted diseases
Contraceptives help prevent the spread
STIs are single most important cause of reproductive disorders
Bacterial and Parasitic sexually transmitted infections
picking bacteria up from birth canal can develop;
which is a painful eye infection that can lead to corneal scarring if untreated along with inflammation with the respiratory tract including pneumonia
Responsible for 25-50% of all diagnosed cases of pelvic inflammatory disease
which is penile and vaginal discharges, abnormal, rectal, or testicular pain, painful intercourse, irregular menses.
Only 20% of women and 10% of men have symptoms if its left untreated which can lead to sterility.
is the most common bacterial STI in the US caused by
and can be contracted from the birth canal by newborns
is a parasitic infection that is common in women than men and is easily and inexpensively treated.
; 70% of women have no symptoms, 30% have yellow-green vaginal discharge with a strong odor
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Depending on the characteristics of the lesion, radiation, chemotherapy, or surgery, with more radiation and chemotherapy to destroy stray cells
Drugs for estrogen responsive cancers
can be an early detection via self-examination and
which is a type of x-ray
is a less invasive and excises only cancerous lumps
-early onset of menstration and late menopause
-no pregnancies or first pregnancy late in life
-No or short periods of breast feeding
-Family history of breast cancer
70% of women with breast cancer have no known risk factors
Female Reproductive System
The reproductive role of female more complex because of pregnancy
Female duct system
The Uterine tube system doesn't have direct contact with ovaries. Ovulated oocytes are released into peritoneal cavity where some oocytes never make it to the tube system. The tube system includes,
, and the
are also called
receiving the ovulation cycle and is the normal site for fertilization.
is a hollow thick walled and muscular organ. Its function is to receive, retain, and nourish fertilized ovums
is a thick walled tube 8-10 cm in length and functions as a birth canal and passageway for menstrual flow and organ of copulation
Vaginal secretions are acidic in adult females
Mucosa near the vaginal orifice forms incomplete partition called
that ruptures with intercourse
The female Perineum
is a diamond shaped region between the pubic arch and the coccyx
are present in both males and females but normally function only in females.
Their main function is milk production to nourish newborns. Modified sweat glands consist of 12-25
is pigmented skin surrounding the nipple. Lobules within the lobes contain glandular alveoli that produce milk.
Breast size is due to the amount of fat deposits.
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is anterior to the vestibule, the counterpart of the penis, the body of the clitoris has erectile tissue
is a recess within the labia majora
is a hair covered fatty skin folds, the counterparts of the male scrotum
is the fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis
has three layers
Regions of the Uterus
is the main portion
is the rounded superior region
is the narrowed inferior region
is the narrowed neck, or outlet that projects into the vagina
communicates with the vagina via external os and the uterine body via internal os
is the outermost serous layer (visceral peritoneum)
is the bulky layer consisting of interlacing layers of smooth muscle and contracts rhythmically during childbirth
is the mucosal lining. A simple columnar epithelium on top of a thick lamina propia where the fertilized egg burrow into the endometrium and resides there during development
Regions of the Uterine Tube
is a funnel shaped opening into the peritoneal cavity. The margins contain ciliated projections called
that drape over the overy and is the site where fertilization usually occurs
Each tube is 10 cm long and extends from the area of ovary to the superior region of the uterus
During ovulation, the uterine tube captures ooocytes and it is then carried along towards the uterus by smooth muscle peristalisis and ciliary action
- paired structures flank the uterus, are almond shaped and about twice as large
Each ovary is held in place by several ligaments
- anchors ovary medially to uterus
- anchors ovary laterally to pelvic wall
Suspensory ligaments and mesovarium are a part of
that supports uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina.
is located in the pelvic cavity including
(Uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina)
are tiny sac like structures embedded in the cortex containing immature egg encased by one or more layers of very different cells
Each month a ripened follicle ejects oocyte in an event called
are female gonads. They produce female gamates and secrete female sex hormones