CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY image - Coggle Diagram
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY
1.1 Energy Scenarios (Supply and Demand situation)
Voltage Supply Level in Malaysia
1) Single Phase (230v)
2) Three Phase ( 400V)
Extra Low Voltage
( V < 50V)
( 50V < V < 1kV)
- 6.6 kV up to 33kV
(1kV < V < 50kV)
- 66kV and above
High Voltage- (50kV< V<230kV)
Extra High Voltage - ( 230kV < V)
Usage Profile (24 hours operation)
(Monday to Sunday)
Peak: 8.00am - 10.00pm
Off- Peak: 10.00pm - 8.00am
Main function of the Energy Commission
Advise minister on all matters concerning energy supply activities.
To Promote self-regulation.
To Implement, enforce and review energy supply laws
The main focus of the commission are reliable electricity and gas supply, reasonable costs and safety.
Promote renewable energy and conservation of non renewable energy.
Promote competition and prevent misuse of monopoly power in electricity and piped gas
Promote research and development of new techniques relating to supply and use of
electricity and piped gas.
Malaysia Energy Commission Cabinet
1.2 Energy Sources & Utilization
Non-renewable energy is the conventional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas, which are likely to deplete with time
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock with a high amount of carbon and hydrocarbons. Coal is classified as a nonrenewable energy source because it takes millions of years to form.
coal’s position as the single largest source of electricity worldwide.
1.Cheap cost among others fossil fuel
2.Very abundant supply
2.Contribute to global warming
Natural gas is a fossil energy source that formed deep beneath the earth's surface
Natural gas contains many different compounds.
The largest component of natural gas is methane,
a compound with one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms (CH4).
Can be transport by ship, piping and
2.Found a lot of places
2.Contribute to global warming
Petroleum is a naturally occurring liquid found beneath the earth’s surface that can be refined into fuel. Petroleum is a fossil fuel, meaning that it has been created by the decomposition of organic matter over millions of years
Shale Oil is a type of rock that
can be burned for energy or fuel.
Derive from Fission of Atom
Nuclear energy is a nuclear reaction that release nuclear energy to generate heat.
The heat then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant
produced by nuclear fission of uranium
Zero CO2 emission
Low fuel quantity(uranium) but
produce huge electricity.
Not produce pollutant gases
Waste is radioactive and safely
disposal very difficult
Large scale accident can be
Cost of facility very expensive
Renewable energy is energy obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible.
Renewable energy can be harnessed without the release of harmful pollutants
Derive from Sun ( Indirect or directly)
Technology that harvest from sun to convert from heat into electricity and thermal.
Solar Energy can harvest from this method; - Solar Photovoltaic (Solar Power), Vacuum Tube Solar Water Heater, Molten Salt Solar Power
2.Uses a lot space
Technology that harvest from wind to convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power.
A generator can convert mechanical power into electricity.
Clean fuel source
1.Wind plants can impact local wildlife.
Noisy and aesthetic pollution
Plant or animal material used as fuel to produce electricity or heat.
Examples are wood, energy crops and waste from forests, yards, or
Pollution due to burning
Extraction process is expensive
Produced by the surge of ocean waters during the rise and fall of tides.
Tidal energy is a renewable source of energy.
Zero CO2 emission
Energy can be predict
Piping dangerous to animals
2.Grid connection very difficult
Form of energy which could be harnessed through movement of water to power machinery or create electricity.
It constant rate of electricity
Dam very expensive to built
2.Affected to wildlife and nearby village
Use fish ladder that allows migrating fish passage over or around an obstacle on a river especially near dam area
Derive from Interior of the Earth
Energy derived from the heat that comes from the sub-surface of the earth.
1.Zero CO2 emission
1.Not many place can make geothermal
Sometimes, harmful gases come out
and difficult to control
Energy divide by two sectors;
Primary Energy sector
Primary energy sources are those that are either found or stored in nature.
Primary energy sources are coal, oil, natural gas, and biomass
Secondary Energy sector
Secondary energy sources are those converted from Primary energy sources in industrial
Coal, oil or gas converted into steam and electricity
Reserve per Production (R/P)
The reserves/production ratio or R/P is a method used to assess the size of reserves of
the fossil fuel ; such as Petroleum, Natural Gas and Coal.
The value represents the number of years that current reserves would last if their rate of use did not change.
1.3 Energy cost and tariff in Malaysia
Commercial: Supermarket etc
Top up and Standby Service(Only for Co-Gen)
1.4 Benefits and needs of energy efficiency (EE)
INPUT > PROCESS > OUTPUT
Reasons why energy effiiciency is important
Four Stakeholders and Tasks
Example Energy Technology