Urban Issues & Challenges - LAGOS, - Coggle Diagram
Urban Issues & Challenges - LAGOS
Lagos is located in Western Africa in Nigeria, South of the Sahara Desert and North of the Equator. Nigeria borders Benin on the East, Nigeria to the North and Cameroon to the North West
Lagos is located in the South West of Nigeria and is on the coast of Gulf of Guinea
The large migrant population increases cultural diversity. Also very well connected to other major towns, making it an important centre for regional trade. Has a higher level of education allowing students to then get well paid job and earn sufficient money.
Home to 80% of Nigeria's industry, as well as many global companies which generates about 25% of Nigeria's GDP. Provides a financial hub providing food, water and security for people all over the country.
Lagos' Apapa port (5th busiest in West Africa) and the international airport allows for trade to take place so that imports of unreachable goods can occur and exports take place providing a constant income
There are more healthcare centres, hospitals and a better range of medicines in Lagos.
Almost 90% of Nigerian children in urban areas attend primary school - only around 60% in rural areas attend school. The state Lagos has almost 20,000 schools.
Lagos has better access to electricity than much of Nigeria - the city uses about 40% of the country's electricity supply. Many people can light their homes and cook more easily.
Water treatment plants provide safe water that is piped directly to some area of the city.
Rapid growth means that there are lots of construction jobs, e.g. building the Eko Atlantic.
Lagos is home to many of the country's banks, government departments and manufacturing industries. There are also two major ports and a growing fishing industry.
Lagos also has a thriving film and music industry - "Nollywood" films are very popular.
Factors which caused rapid growth
The British colonised Lagos in the 1860s, making it a centre for trade and attracting many merchants.
Many ex-slaves returned home to Lagos in 1800s (e.g. from Brazil) as slavery was abolished.
When Lagos gained independence in 1960, there was rapid economic development as Nigeria's resources (e.g. oil) were no longer controlled by the British.
The government then financed lots of construction projects, e.g. oil refineries, sea ports and factories, creating many jobs and causing rapid urbanisation.
Lagos' recent growth has been caused by natural increase and migration.
Rapid growth has led to many problems
Access to health and education
There aren't enough healthcare facilities for everyone and many people can't afford it
There aren't enough schools for the growing population and many families can't afford it
Unemployment & Crime
There aren't enough formal jobs so people turn to informal jobs like scavenging through rubbish dumps for things to sell
60% of the population work in the informal sector e.g. street vendors
High level of crime
Slums and Squatter Settlements
House construction can't keep up with population growth leading to 66% of the population living in illegal slums
Slums are built illegally so people face eviction if slums are demolished to clean up the city
Access to Clean Water, Sanitation & Energy
, only 40% of the city is connected to running water. People pay huge prices for drinking water
, up to 15 households share a toilet and waste often goes into local water sources, cholera
, Lagos doesn't have enough electricity to power the whole city so neighbourhoods take it in turns
Population produces 9000 tonnes of waste a day. 40% of rubbish is collected and there are large rubbish dumps, like Olusosun, which contain toxic waste
Waste disposal and emission are not regulated and controlled causing pollution
Traffic congestion is awful, many workers face 3 hour commutes
Makoko Floating School
Plan to use Lagos Lagoon to educate people in floating houses. 2014 Makoko floating school - 60 children and a community centre
It was destroyed in a storm in 2016 but has been rebuilt
Uses solar panels and 250 plastic barrels were used to float on the waters and be naturally ventilated and aerated
New energy power stations planned including for methane from the Osulosun dump
Water master plan aims to regulate street vendors and license boreholes
Police and military patrols overnight, ban on use of motorcycles and intro of toll free emergency numbers
3 new police helicopters
Introduction of better public transport to help reduce congestion
Eko Atlantic taking place on Victoria Island. Mixed use residential and business development. Accommodation for 250,000 people and employment opportunities for 150,000
10 million square meters of sand-filled land reclaimed from the Atlantic Ocean
(This is a case study for urban issues and challenges)
Main driver of urbanisation, most migrants are young and move in search of jobs, education and healthcare
Cities where trade thrives, is a good place for businesses, so the city grows economically. This creates jobs
The migrants who move to the city have children increasing the population
The increasing proportion of people living in urban areas
Push & Pull Factors
Push Factors: Encourage people to leave an area
Drought & Famine
Pull Factors: Encourage people to move to an area
Access to better healthcare and education
Better paid jobs