Affect of Cooking on food nutrients, - Coggle Diagram
Affect of Cooking on food nutrients
Exposure of Air
Type and temperature of storage.
Type of storage steal and how long it was exposed for.
Size of vegetable or fruit when storing/surface area- i.e. diced into small cubes = larger surface area.
Explanation: When oxygen in the air reacts with Vitamin C and the fat-soluble vitamins A and E (which are particularly prone to oxidation), oxidation occurs to result in the breakdown of the vitamin.
Cooking with dry heat: Grilling and broiling. Cooking with dry heat methods reduces levels of B vitamins.
Microwaving: Microwaving is a safe cooking method that preserves most nutrients due to short cooking times.
Water-based cooking: Boiling, simmering, and poaching. Water-based cooking methods cause the greatest losses of water-soluble vitamins but they have very little effect on omega-3 fats.
Cooking with dry heat using the oven. Roasting or baking does not have a significant effect on most vitamins and minerals, except for B vitamins
Steaming. Steaming is one of the best cooking methods for preserving nutrients, including water-soluble vitamins.
Size of food during cooking
What foods are being cooked (e.g vegetables or fruits). -Cubes, diced, sliced or large pieces.
Smaller quantities of food will result in a shorter cooking time, whereas larger quantities of foods with result in a longer cooking time. This may effect nutrient context as shorter cooking times have been shown to have higher amounts of nutrients.
The use of Baking Soda produces an alkaline environment that results in the decline of minerals such as vitamin C .
Water-soluble vitamins: most of the B vitamins and vitamin C will leach into cooking water.
Oils: Vitamins A, D and E are fat-soluble and leach into cooking oils.
pH- the use of vinegar
When fruits or vegetables are cooked at high temperatures or for long periods of time, heat-sensitive nutrients such as B vitamins, vitamin C and folate are more likely to be destroyed.
Vitamins that are the most unstable when cooked/processed and stored: • Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C) • Folic Acid (vitamin B9) • Thiamine (vitamin B1)
Vitamins that are more stable when cooked, processed or stored: • Niacin (vitamin B3) • Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) • Biotin (vitamin B7) • Vitamin D • Vitamin K
Micro and Macro nutrients
Macronutrients include carbohydrates, proteins and triglycerides.
Micronutrients include water-soluble (such as vitamin C) and fat-soluble vitamins, minerals (such as Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe and Zn), and water.