Emotional and Cognitive Socialization Outcomes - Coggle Diagram
Emotional and Cognitive Socialization Outcomes
Types of Values
Qualities or beliefs that are viewed as desirable or important
What are some basic societal values? Equal justice for all-Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.
Compassion for those in need-with malice toward none, with charity for all
Equality of Opportunity-We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.
Personal Values-Truth the truth shall make you free.
Love-To love and be loved
Knowledge-knowledge is power.
Values are affected by societal perception-concept of normality
Values are affected by personal perception
Values Clarification the process of discovering what is personally worthwhile or desirable in life.
Attitude is a tendency to respond positively or negatively to certain persons, objects, or situations.
Attitudes are composed of beliefs, feelings, and behavior tendencies.
Prejudice an attitude involving prejudgment; the application of a previously formed judgment to some person, object, or situation.
Development of Attitudes
Phase I awareness of cultural differences, beginning at about age 2 1/2 to 3
Phase II orientation toward specific culturally related words and concepts, beginning at about age 4
Phase III attitudes toward various cultural groups, beginning at about age 7
Transgender an umbrella term for individuals whose gender identity or gender expression and behavior does not conform to that typically associated with the sex to which they were assigned at birth.
Gender identity refers to a person's internal sense of being male, female, or something else.
Influences on Attitude Development
Family parents have a large impact on children's attitudes and values.
Modeling children identify with models who are powerful and admirable.
Instruction one way children learn is by instruction.
Reinforcement and punishment -The socializing techniques of reinforcement and punishment are also involved in the way children learn attitudes.
Peers influence attitudes and behavior. Children compare the acceptability of their beliefs with those of their friends.
Mass Media-children and adolescents frequently cite television as a source of information that influences their attitudes about people and things.
Television and movies
Books are influential in attitude formation
Community customs and traditions influence attitudes.
Schools influence attitude formation.
Changing attitudes about diversity.
Increased positive intercultural contact.-Children worked in interethnic teams at an interesting puzzle and were all praised for their work.
Vicarious intercultural contacts-children heard an interesting story about a sympathetic and resourceful African American child.
Perceptual differentiation-children were shown slides of a culturally diverse woman who appearance varied depending on whether or not she was wearing glasses which of two different hairdos she was wearing.
Motive and Attributions
Motive is a need or emotion that causes a person to act.
Motivated is to be moved to do something.
Attribution is an explanation for one's performance
achievement motivation refers to the learned motivation to achieve mastery of challenging tasks.
Within-person (intrinsic) changes result from cognitive or emotional maturation, such as becoming more curious as one is able to learn more and becoming more competent as one is able to master more.
Socially mediated (extrinsic) changes result from contexts children experience as they grow, such as family, school, or peer group, and the accompanying feelings of autonomy or control.
locus of control one's attribution of performance or perception of responsibility for success or failure; may be internal or external.
Achievement motivation (Mastery Orientation)
Correlated with actual achievement behavior.
Children with high expectations for success on a task usually persist at it longer and perform better than children with low expectations.
When teachers are caring, supportive, and emphasize the learning process over performance outcomes, as well as give feedback, children tend to be motivated to achieve and expect success.
Locus of Control
Relates to one's attribution of performance, or sense of personal responsibility for success or failure, it may be internal or external.
Internal locus of control perception that one is responsible for one's own fate.
external locus of control perception that others or outside forces are responsible for one's fate.
Learned-helpless orientation the perception, acquired through negative experiences, that effort has no affect on outcomes.
If parents and teachers praise children's abilities when they succeed and emphasize lack of effort when they fall, the children are more likely to persist at challenging tasks, thereby developing achievement orientation.
Japanese society also places a high value on effort as well as perseverance.
Self-efficacy is the belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes.
personal agency the realization that one's actions cause outcomes.
Most significant influence on self-efficacy beliefs is actual experience successfully performing tasks, solving problems, making things happen.
Self-esteem a global perception of the self, whereas others view it as multidimensional, consisting of scholastic competence, athletic competence, social competence, physical appearance, behavioral conduct.
Self-esteem the value one places on one's identity
Development of Self-esteem
Significance the way one perceives she is loved and cared about by significant others.
Competence the way one performs tasks one considers important
Virtue how well one attains moral and ethical standards.
Power the extent to which one has control or influence over one's life and that of others.
Influences on the development of self-esteem family
Warm accepting and affectionate.
Strict they enforced rules carefully and consistently.
Democratic they allowed the children to participate in making family plans.
School-It has been found that students with higher self-esteem are more likely to be successful in school and achieve more than children with low self-esttem.
Peers-they tease and ostracize children who are different physically, intellectually, linguistically, or socially.
Mass media influences young people through advertising strategies on television and in magazines portray ideal physical stereotypes