Life in Authoritarian States - Coggle Diagram
Life in Authoritarian States
Policies for women
Law for the Encouragement of Marraige
A loan of 1000 marks given to married couples, 250 of which can be kept with each child.
Mother's cross: Award to women who had large numbers of children.
Women could volunteer to have the baby of an Aryan SS officer.
Law for the Reduction of Unemployment: financial incentives for women to stay at home.
Not conscripting women to help with the war effort until 1943
Expected to emulate peasant fashions: plain clothes, hair in plaits or buns, and flat shoes.
The three K's: Kinder, Kuche, Kirche.
Women were meant to get married and have lots of children.
The Battle for Births began in 1927.
More children resulted in better tax privileges. Large families had many tax benefits but single men and women were taxed heavily.
The Battle for Births was a failure, since the birth rate actually went down.
Policies for children and education
Boys were encouraged to join the Hitler Youth and girls were encouraged to join the League of German Maidens. Membership was eventually made compulsory.
Hitler Youth was to indoctrinate the boys and turn them into soldiers. The uniforms were inspired by the military and activities were focused on physical training.
The League of German Maidens was founded in order to prepare girls to be mothers and wives. There was more of a focus on learning household tasks.
Teachers had to join the Nazi Teachers' Association, which made sure that they would teach what they were meant to be taught.
The subjects were altered as well: History became focused on the Nazi Party and what it had accomplished. Biology became focused on eugenics. Race study and ideology was added and dealt with anti-Semitism and the Aryan race. Physical education was made more important and occurred five times a week. Finally, mathematics and chemistry were not seen to be as important, so they were taught less.
Children were taught that the great modern Italy began in 1922 with the March on Rome, and that Mussolini was the only man who could lead Italy to greatness.
Children were encouraged to attend after school groups: Sons of the She Wolf, Balilla, and Avanguardista. While there, they often took part in military exercises.
Boys were taught that fighting is natural for boys and girls were taught that childbearing was natural to girls.
Religious education was made compulsory in order to gain the support of the church.
Nazi racial beliefs
Aryans were the master race and other races were "untermensch". Scientists believed in eugenics and degenerates.
Policy of persecution
Sterilization - many groups were prevented from reproducing, including those with mental and physical disabilities, as well as those with physical disabilities.
Euthanasia - over 100000 disabled Germans were killed without consent, often with gas.
Concentration camps - any groups that were considered impure or a threat were sent to the camps. The groups included homosexuals, gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, and pacifists.
Persecution of the Jews
From 1933 to 1938, opportunities for Jewish individuals were limited more and more. At first it was simply prejudice, but they soon became legally discriminated against as well.
By 1939 Jews had no citizenship and were regularly attacked by Nazis.
After work clubs were introduced, though these were less focused on indoctrination and more focused on pleasure.
Censorship was not complete, as the news was censored but not literary texts or cinema until the late 1930s.
Citizens were encouraged to participate in state-organized celebrations in order to create a patriotic population, but exact participation is not known.
Fascism reinforced traditional gender and sexual roles within families.
Commissioned a large number of public works, including hospitals, schools, stadiums, and the autobahns.
Rearmament gave people jobs in factories that produced weapons and ammunition as well as in the army itself.
The National Labor Service gave young men a place to work for six months before they were conscripted into the army
The 1.4 million men working in the army did not really count.
Jews had no employment since they had to give up their jobs to non-Jews.
Women had low employment since they were encouraged to give up their jobs to men.
Hitler wanted Germany to become an autarky, but this didn't really work. Hermann Göring tried to do it when he became Economic minister, but Germany was still importing 20% of its food and 33% of its raw materials.
Standard of living
Big businesses became monopolies under the Nazis in order to help with rearmament. Their profits rose 50% as a result.
Small businesses were subject to harsh restriction, causing 20% of them to fail.
Farmers had greater security for their land, and agricultural prices rose 20% by 1937.
Industrial workers needed more incentives to work under the Nazis.
The Labor Front was the replacement of trade unions for the workers. It set wages and usually followed the wishes of the employers.
The Strength Through Joy program tried to give workers rewards for hard work, like vacations and evening classes.
The Beauty of Labor program tried to make work seem attractive and something everyone should do, oftentimes by improving conditions for workers.
Mussolini compared economic programs to wars, as evidenced in his "battles" for grain and land.
Mussolini implemented corporatism, which supported big businesses and created monopolies. The government would also buy up businesses that were failing so that they wouldn't take the economy down with them.
Despite the promises of a better economy, many workers entered poverty and living conditions were not very good.