Lymp Immune Lynette Fourzan p.6 - Coggle Diagram
Lymp Immune Lynette Fourzan p.6
Removal of excess body fluids
absorption of fatty acids and subsequent transport of fat, chyle, to the circulatory system
Production of immune cells such as lymphocytes, monocytes, antibodys, and plasma cells.
To fight disease-causing germs (pathogens) like bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi, and to remove them from the body
To recognize and neutralize harmful substances from the environment
To fight disease-causing changes in the body, such as cancer cells
Active :occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response. Example: The placental transfer of IgG from mother to fetus during pregnancy.
Passive: occurs during pregnancy, in which certain antibodies are passed from the maternal blood into the fetal bloodstream in the form of IgG. Example: Mother feeding breast milk to infant
Active: is protection produced by intentional exposure of a person to antigens in a vaccine, so as to produce an active and lasting immune response. Example: vaccine for tuberculosis, oral polio vaccine 'sabin', injectable polio vaccine
Passive: is an immediate, but short-term immunization provided by the injection of antibodies, such as gamma globulin, that are not produced by the recipient's cells. These antibodies are developed in another individual or animal and then injected into another individual. Example: Rabies vaccine and snake antivenom.
Known as antibody-mediated immunity. Antibodies defend against infection in body fluids. Lymphocytes that are mature in the bone marrow are called B cells and are involved in the Humoral immune response. Both B and T cells have receptor proteins to bind to antigens. Lymphocytes are designed to recognize a specific type of antigen.
Primary Humoral Response
First exposure to specific antigen. B cells with specific receptors bind to a specific antigen. Binding effect activates the lymphocytes to undergo clonal selection (rapid copying of the specific B cells). Cloning of B cells is the primary Humoral Response. Most B cells become plasma cells which produce antibodies. Antibodies travel through blood, lymph, and mucus, to destroy pathogen. Antibody activity last four to five days. Some B cells become long-lived memory cells for the secondary Humoral response.
Secondary Humoral Response
Reintroduction of the antigen at a future time. MUCH FASTER AND STRONGER, MORE EFFICIENT AND LONG LASTING. Destroys pathogen before any symptoms of infections shows. memory cell becomes activated and divide rapidly producing antibodies as soon as antigen is reintroduced into the body.
Cellular Immune response
Also called cell-mediated immunity
Cytotoxic cells defend against infection in already infected, cancer, or transplanted cells. Lymphocytes that mature in the thymus are celled T cells and are involved in the cell mediated immune response.
Unlike B cells T cells cannot bind to free antigens. Antigens must be presented (Antigen presentation) by macrophages to an immunecompatent T cell. Major Histocompatability complex (MIC) proteins are pieces of cellular material on the cell surface (gives cells a unique label or finger print).
Cells, Macrophages, or even plasma cells can digest carry portions of the antigen on the MHC proteins. Any cells carrying the MHC with the portion of the antigen is called the antigen presenting cell (APC). T cells recognize and binds to the infected or cancerous cells by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins
Human cells have many surface proteins. Our immune cells do not attack our own proteins. Antibody generator- Any substance capable of activating the immune system by elicting an immune responce. Example: foregin proteins, Nucleic acids, large carbohydrates Some lipids, pollen grains, Microorgans
Also known as immunoglobulin or IG. soluble protein secreted by plasma cells derived from the B cells. Carried in body fluids. Capable of binding specifically to antigens.
Structure of antibody: Made of 4 amino acid chains linked by a disulfide bond. Two light chains. Two heavy chains are made by two identical amino acids are linked together.
Antibody classes: IgM primarily immune response. IgA found mainly in mucus. IgD important in activation of B cells. IgG can cross placental barrier. IgE involved in allergies.
Function: complex fixation- occurs when complement proteins attach to an antigen or foreign substance such as bacteria and activates immmunity
Lymphocytes:white blood cells that are also one of the body's main types of immune cells. They are made in the bone marrow and found in the blood and lymph tissue
T cells: A type of white blood cell that is of key importance to the immune system and is at the core of adaptive immunity, the system that tailors the body's immune response to specific pathogens. The T cells are like soldiers who search out and destroy the targeted invaders.
B cells: a lymphocyte not processed by the thymus gland, and responsible for producing antibodies.B cells produce antibody molecules that can latch on and destroy invading viruses or bacteria
NK cells: large granular lymphocytes (LGL), are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system. The role of NK cells is analogous to that of cytotoxic T cells in the vertebrate adaptive immune response.
Neutrophils: type of white blood cell (WBC or granulocyte) that protect us from infections, among other functions
Monocytes: a large phagocytic white blood cell with a simple oval nucleus and clear, grayish cytoplasm. Monocytes are a type of white blood cell that fight certain infections and help other white blood cells remove dead or damaged tissues, destroy cancer cells, and regulate immunity against foreign substances.
Macrophages: specialized cells involved in the detection, phagocytosis and destruction of bacteria and other harmful organisms. In addition, they can also present antigens to T cells and initiate inflammation by releasing molecules (known as cytokines) that activate other cells.
Pericarditis: In inflammation of pericardium. may be commonly caused by viral infections which causes build up of fluid in the pericardial cavity and prevents the heart from contrasting and expanding to pump blood
Angina Pectoris: crushing chest pain from lack of blood to heart muscle. May be indicated of myocardial infarction or pain during exercise or exertion. also may be due to sore chest muscles
Myocardial infarcation: Heart attack. heart muscle cells die due to lack blood heart muscles(myocardium). caused by artherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. symptoms include chest pain, pain down the left arm, shortness of breath, fever, and vomiting.
Murmer: Abnormal or irregular heart sounds. caused by valve stenosis
Valve stenosis: Defect in valve failing to open which makes heart pump harder. problems can happen to any valves but most worst it mitral valve stenosis.
Fibrillation: rapid uncoordinated shudding of heart muscle which prevents heart from acting as a pump. caused by defect in the intrinsic conduction system, specifically the SA node.
Varicose veins: Swollen and twisted veins caused by when valves in veins do not work and caused back flow or pooling of blood.
Anatomy of the Lymphatic system
The lymphatic system consists of lymph vessels, ducts, nodes, and other tissues. Around 2 liters of fluid leak from the cardiovascular system into body tissues every day. The lymphatic system is a network of vessels that collect these fluids, or lymph.