Life by authoritarian states - Coggle Diagram
Life by authoritarian states
Policy toward Women
Marriage and family
Hitler believed women’s lives should revolve round the three 'Ks': Kinder, Kuche, Kirche.
Hitler wanted high birth rate, law of the encouragement of Marriage. Newlywed couple a loan of 1000 marks. Keep 250 marks for each child.
Women allowed to volunteer to have a baby for an Aryan member of the SS
were expected to stay at home, look after the family and produce children in order to secure the future of the Aryan race
female labour was cheap between 1933 and 1939. Women employment rised by 2.4 million
Women were expected to emulate traditional German peasant fashions - plain peasant costumes, hair in plaits or buns and flat shoes. They were not expected to wear make-up or trousers, dye their hair or smoke in public. They were discouraged from staying slim, because it was thought that thin women had trouble giving birth.
policies toward children and education
Hitler thinks the young is very important. Hitler spoke of his Third Reich lasting for a thousand years and to achieve this he would have to ensure German children were thoroughly indoctrinated into Nazi ideology.
Children at age of 10 will encouraged to join Nazi youth organization, the Hitler Youth.
education(brainwash the children so they would grow up accepting Nazi ideas without question
History - lessons included a course on the rise of the Nazi Party.
Biology - lessons were used to teach Nazi racial theories of evolution in eugenics.
Race study and ideology - this became a new subject, dealing with the Aryan ideas and anti-Semitism.
Physical Education - German schoolchildren had five one-hour sports lessons every week.
Chemistry and Mathematics - were downgraded in importance.
How Hitler increase employment
Public works, Rearmament, National Service
Hitler wanted Germany to become an autarky – to produce everything that it needed.However, the measures he introduced, such as tighter controls on imports and subsidies for farmers to produce more food, were not successful. By the outbreak of World War Two Germany was still importing 20 per cent of its food and 33 per cent of its raw materials.
SA was demised after the Night of the long Knives
Schutzstaffel(SS) Led by Henrich Himmler. The most important organization.
Gestapo. Nazis' secret police force
Sicherheitsdienst(SD). Intelligence gathering agency of the SS
Judges had to swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler
All lawyers had to join Nazi Lawyers' Association. They are being controlled
Standard punishment were abolished. Local prosecutors can decide what penalties to impose
From 1933 to 1939, number of death penalty increased from 3 to 36
Catholic and Protestant Churches
45 million Protestants and 22 million Catholic in Germany in 1933. Hitler thinks it is a threat because it emphasised peace.
Nazis tried to unify different branches of Protestantism to German Christians. This help Nazi to spread propaganda. 1933, Hitler signed Concordat with the Pope, saying he would not interfere the church, but the church can't be political.
Old testament was considered a Jewish book so they are banned. Catholic schools and youth organization was supressed, as Nazi has there own. Catholic newspaper was banned.
In 1937, Hitler had to return control to the old Protestants in return for a promised of staying out of policital matter. Hitler's supression failed, as attendance at Catholic churches increased substantially under the Nazis, espically during WWII
Joseph Goebbels Propaganda Minister
the infamous Swastika symbol appearing on every government uniform and public building
pictures of Hitler displayed everywhere
Germans having to greet each other with a ‘Heil Hitler’ raised arm salute
Censorship of the press. All newspapers were controlled
Control of radio broadcasts. Every Germans can buy one because it is cheap. Also controlled
Mass rallies.These public displays of support for Nazism involved music, speeches and demonstrations of German strength. The biggest one was held each year in August at Nuremberg.
Use of sports events. Berlin hosted the 1936 Olympics. Nazis want to show the superiority of the Aryan race. Victory of Jesse Owens infuriated the Nazis.
All Italians were expected to obey Mussolini and his Fascist Party. Authority was enforced by the use of the Blackshirts – the nickname for the Fasci di Combattimenti. Those men in this unit were usually ex-soldiers and it was their job to bring into line those who opposed Mussolini
One favoured way of making people conform was to tie a ‘troublemaker’ to a tree, force a pint or two of castor oil down the victim’s throat and force him to eat a live toad/frog etc
OVRA. secret police under Mussolini
It was formed in 1927 and was lead by Arturo Bocchini. The death penalty was restored under Mussolini for serious offences. Yet up to 1940 only ten people had been sentenced to death. Only 4000 people were arrested by the OVRA and sent to prison. This figure was massively overshadowed by the actions of the Gestapo and SS in Nazi Germany.
he children were the Fascists of the future and Mussolini took a keen interest in the state’s education system and the youth organisations that existed in Italy.
Mussolini wanted a nation of warriors. Boys were expected to grow into fierce soldiers who would fight with glory for Italy while girls were expected to be good mothers who would provide Italy with a population that a great power was expected to have.
Children were taught at school, that the great days of modern Italy started in 1922 with the March on Rome. Children were taught that Mussolini was the only man who could lead Italy back to greatness. Children were taught to call him “Il Duce” and boys were encouraged to attend after school youth movements. Three existed.
The glory of the old Roman Empire always lurked in the background of much of what children did. A child in a youth movements was a “legionary” while an adult officer was a “centurion” – a throw back to the days of when the Ancient Roman army dominated much of western Europe.
women were seen as having a specific role in Fascist Italy. The task of young girls was to get married and have children – lots of them. In 1927, Mussolini launched his Battle for Births.
Women were encouraged to have children and the more children brought better tax privileges – an idea Hitler was to build on. Large families got better tax benefits but bachelors were hit by high taxation.
Families were given a target of 5 children. Mothers who produced more were warmly received by the Fascist government. In 1933, Mussolini met 93 mothers at the Palazzo Venezia who had produced over 1300 children – an average of 13 each!
Mussolini wanted Italy to have a population of 60 million by 1950. In 1920, it stood at 37 million so his target was a tall order. However, the Battle for Births was a failure. Though the population grew as people were living longer due to better medical care, the birth rate actually went down between 1927 and 1934.
fascism applied the imagery and metaphors of war to economic production
Fascist unions did little to protect them against wage cuts and sackings. While propaganda exalted rural life, the regime’s economic policies impoverished the peasant masses in particular.