Social and Domestic Policies in Authoritarian States - Coggle Diagram
Social and Domestic Policies in Authoritarian States
Women were expected to stay at home and take care of the children. They were also encouraged to produce children with Aryan men to secure the future of the Aryan race.
Law for the Encouragement of Marriage gave newlywed couples a loan of 1000 marks and allowed them to keep 250 marks for each child they had
Women were discouraged from working in the beginning and even had incentives to stay home. However, Female labor was cheap between 1933-1939 when the German economy was growing.
Young girls were to get married and have children. "Battle for Births". More children brought better tax privileges. Each family had a target of 5 children. : :
Limited female employment and encouraged marriage. Restricting the availability of contraceptives and increasing severity of prison sentences for illegal abortions
Policies on Women
Mao wanted to eliminate traditional gender roles and moved to bring more rights to women. In reality, the workplace was still dominated by men.
Mao banned abortions, opened up more jobs for women with the majority doing farm and factory work
Communal kitchen and communal kindergarten during the Great Leap Forward allowed for more women to work
Brought marriage reform, anti-dowry, anti-foot binding.
Important during the cultural revolution.
Developed cult of Mao
Promoted the Little Red Book
Created the 8 model operas
Censoring and crushing opposition
Employment and living standards
Hitler jump started programs to increase public works, Hospitals, schools, and public buildings
Jewish workplaces were sacked and given to non-Jewish people. Women were also encouraged to give up their jobs to men.
Living standards rose for ordinary people who were ready to conform and look the other way. Nazis tackled monopolies and gave farmers more security through the Hereditary Farm Law of 1933.
Rearmament of Germany was the bulk of economic growth between 1933 and 1938. Rearmament created millions of jobs for German workers.
Promised an eight hour day, rich benefited from a reduction in death duties. More of what someone had earned during their lifetime, went to their family and not the government.
In the economic depression of the 1930s, big businesses benefitted from the state's intervention to save failing companies. Workers and families saw a decline in living standards. Poverty was on the rise.
1930s implementation of the "Corporate State", consisting of representative bodies of employers and employees for each sector of the economy.
Rise to Power
Peasants resented the landlords. Inflation during the GMD hit all social classes and ended all the support of savings in banks.
Peasants wished for land reform and Peasants were the majority.
Aims and policies
3 anti-campaigns and 5 anti-campaigns (Corruption, waste, bureaucracy) (Bribery, theft of state property, tax evasion, cheating on government contracts, stealing state economic intelligence)
Business men were fined and ridiculed
1st five year plan succeeded (1952-1956). Industry went very well but was expensive as the Soviets asked for money in return for help. Collective farms: stripped peasants of land, more efficient, soviet style, food production falls.
The Great Leap Forward (2nd five year plan)
Extreme famine and bad weather, production of bad steel. Backyard furnaces. Communes: All encompassing collective farm and units.
Land reform and land distribution. Agrarian reform law. Social classification and speak bitterness campaign.
Children and Education
Opposition from the youth
Edelweiss Pirates based in the Rhineland daubing anti-Nazi slogans and singing pre-1933 folk songs. 1944 they killed the Gestapo chief, 12 were publicly hanged
White Rose group formed by students at Munich University in 1943. They published anti-Nazi leaflets and marched through the city in protest at Nazi policies.
Swing youth or Jazz youth groups were formed who rejected Nazi values, drank alcohol, and danced to jazz.
Youth through education
German boys were meant to be future soldiers wearing all military-style uniforms. Girls were taught separate from the boys. Girls were taught how to be good wives and traditional women roles.
Hitler completely altered the education for the youth. History, Biology, Race study and ideology, PE, Chemistry, and Mathematics were altered to Nazi views. Taught Aryan ideas and anti-Semitism.
Religious education was made compulsory in all elementary schools
Mussolini needed the backing of the church and the Pope. Through the Lateran Treaty, he gained dictatorial powers where he could guarantee loyalty from Catholics.
Adults who opposed Mussolini were dealt with harshly. Mussolini wanted a nation of warriors. Boys were expected to grow into fierce soldiers while girls were expected to be good mothers.
School youth movements. Boys were taught fighting and were taught to obey those in charge. All boys took part in semi-military exercises.
People had little control over their personal life and the state controlled as much as they could
All Italians were expected to obey Mussolini and his Fascist Party. Authority was enforced by the use of the Black shirts
Secret police named OVRA
State censored news and banned all direct criticism of fascism.
Citizens scared of SS, Gestapo, and SD. Citizens of Germany were scared of concentration camps and scared to go against Nazi rule.
Hitler saw Christianity as a threat and a potential source of opposition. Nazi's controlled the Churches through policies and bargaining. 1933 Hitler signed a Concordat with the Pope.
Censorship of the press, Control of radio broadcasts, mass ralies, use of sports events
Weimar period had seen a flourishing of German Art however Hitler encouraged 'Aryan Art' which showed the physical and military power of Germany and the Aryan race.
All films broadcasted contained propaganda.
Persecution of minorities
Nazi's believed in eugenics and believed that they were the superior race "Aryan Race".
Sterilization, euthanasia, and concentration camps to persecute minorities