Principles and guidelines for maximizing student learning from video…
Principles and guidelines for maximizing student learning from video content
Educational videos have become an important part of higher education, providing an important content-delivery tool in many flipped, blended, and online classes.
Effective use of video as an educational tool is enhanced when instructors consider three elements: how to manage cognitive load of the video; how to maximize student engagement with the video;and how to promote active learning from the video.
Video may provide a significant means to improve student learning and enhance student engagement in biology courses.
• Keep videos brief and targeted on learning goals.
• Use audio and visual elements to convey appropriate parts
of an explanation; consider how to make these elements
complementary rather than redundant.
• Use signaling to highlight important ideas or concepts.
• Use a conversational, enthusiastic style to enhance engagement.
• Embed videos in a context of active learning by using guiding questions, interactive elements, or associated homework assignments.
Consideration of three elements for video design and implementation can help instructors maximize video’s utility in the biology classroom:
Together, these elements provide a solid base for the development and use of video as an effective educational tool.
• Cognitive load
• Student engagement
• Active learning
Sensory memory is transient, collecting information from the environment. Information from sensory memory may be selected for temporary storage and processing in working memory, which has very limited capacity. This processing is a prerequisite for encoding into long-term memory, which has virtually unlimited capacity.
Based on this model of memory, cognitive load theory suggests that any learning experience has three components. The first of these is intrinsic load, which is inherent to the subject under study and is determined in part by the degrees of connectivity within the subject.
The cognitive theory of multimedia learning builds on the cognitive load theory, noting that working memory has two channels for information acquisition and processing: a visual/pictorial channel and an auditory/verbal-processing channel.
The important thing to keep in mind is that watching a video can be a passive experience, much as reading can be. To make the most of our educational videos, we need to help students do the processing and self-evaluation that will lead to the learning we want to see.