Chapter 2 Network Access - Coggle Diagram
Chapter 2 Network Access
2.1.1 Identify Device Connectivity Options
Wireless Access Point (AP)
Network Interface Card (NIC)
Repeaters operate in the Physical layer of the OSI model-no means to interpret the data they retransmit.
One input and output port - receiving and repeating a single data stream
Repeater allows you to extend a network inexpensively
Hub is a repeater with more than one output port.
Hub accepts signals from a transmitting node and repeats those signals to all other connected nodes in a broadcast fashion.
Because of their limited features and the fact that they merely repeat signals within a single collision domain, hubs were replaced by routers and switches.
Bridges are devices that connect two network segments by analysing incoming frames and making decisions about where to direct them based on each frame’s MAC address.
They operate at the Data Link layer of the OSI model.
Switches are connectivity devices that subdivide a network into smaller logical pieces, or segments.
Traditional switches operate at the Data Link layer of the OSI model.
Modern switches can operate at Layer 3 or even Layer 4.
Because they have multiple ports, switches can make better use of limited bandwidth and prove more cost efficient than bridges.
Router is a multiport connectivity device that directs data between nodes on a network.
Routers can integrate LANs and WANs running at different transmission speeds and using a variety of protocols.
Layer 3 (Network Layer) of OSI model.
Wireless Access Point (WAP)
Wireless Access Point (WAP) that allows a Wi-Fi compliant device to connect to a wired network.
WAP is differentiated from a hotspot, which is the physical location where Wi-Fi access to a WLAN is available.
Network Interface Card (NIC)
A network interface card (NIC) is a hardware component, typically a circuit board or chip, which is installed on a computer so that it can connect to a network.
NICs are designed for use with either wired or wireless networks.
On-Board NICs, via an expansion slot or peripheral bus
Wireless NICs, which contain antennas to send and receive signals wirelessly.
2.1.2 Basic Principles Of The Physical Layer Standards
Open standards encourage interoperability, competition, and innovation.
Standards organizations are usually vendor-neutral, non-profit organizations established to develop and promote the concept of open standards
Internet Society (ISOC)
promotes open development and evolution of Internet use globally.
Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
management and development of Internet standards.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
develops, updates, and maintains Internet and TCP/IP technologies.
Internet Research Task Force (IRTF)
focused on long-term research related to Internet and TCP/IP protocols.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
coordinates IP address allocation and management of domain names.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
manages IP address allocation, domain name management, and protocol identifiers for ICANN.
Electronics and Communications Standard Organizations
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
dedicated to advancing technological innovation and creating standards in a wide area of industries including networking
Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)
standards related to electrical wiring, connectors, and network racks.
Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
standards for radio equipment, cellular towers, Voice over IP (VoIP) devices, and satellite communications.
International Telecommunications Union- Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T)
standards for video compression, Internet Protocol Television (IPTV), and broadband communications.