Water and its Spatial Distribution - Coggle Diagram
Water and its Spatial Distribution
Physical States of Water
Eg. ice is water in solid state
Under cold temperatures, water freezes into ice
Other forms of ice includes snow, glaciers and hail.
Water in its liquid state flows freely, with no set shape but a fixed volume.
Water is in its liquid form when it rains, and in rivers or reservoirs.
When water boils, it becomes steam, which is made up of water vapour.
Water vapour is water in its gaseous state.
Water also turns into water vapour through evaporation.
Since evaporation occurs all the time and at any temperature (0-100°C for pure water), water vapour is always in the air around us.
Where Is Water Found?
Places where water is contained in and can be categorised as freshwater and saltwater stores.
Glaciers, rivers, lakes, groundwater and soil contain freshwater, which means that they contain water with low amounts of salt that can be used more readily.
Oceans are saltwater stores, which means that the ocean water has too much salt to be used directly.
Flows refer to water moving from one store to another.
Large masses of water that are connected to one another.
Largest Oceans (respectively): Pacific Ocean (surrounded by Asia, Australia and the Americas), Atlantic Ocean (separates countries in the Americas from Europe and Africa), Indian Ocean (surrounded by Asia, Africa and Australia), Southern Ocean and Artic Ocean.
Polar bears swim at the Artic Ocean, while penguins swim in the Southern Ocean.
Large masses of ice that rest on land or float in the sea.
Are found in places where it snows throughout the year so that enough snow accumulates and hardens into ice.
Move slowly because they are very heavy.
Water bodies surrounded by land.
May receive water from rain, snow or rivers.
Natural flows of freshwater across the land that store water temporarily before water flows into another water body.
Flow from places of higher elevation to places of lower elevation as gravity pulls water downwards.
The river source marks the point where a river begins, while the river mouth marks the place where a river flows into another water body.
Refers to the loose topmost layer of Earth's surface where plants grow.
Pores are very small openings for water to pass through.
Water that is stored in the soil is known as soil moisture.
Found below the surface of the Earth.
Forms when part of this water makes its way to the rocks beneath, filling up the pores and cracks of these rocks.
Water enters the ground through pores in the soil due to gravity.
Can be used for growing crops or household activities.
Processes that increase the amount of water in a catchment.
Discharge into the sea
Processes that decrease the amount of water in a catchment.
Water falls as rain, or snow if the air is cold enough.
Water that seeps into the ground may be absorbed by plants or stored as groundwater.
Water flows from the highlands and over the ground surface into streams and rivers.
Warm moist air cools as it rises. Water vapour changes into water droplets. Small water droplets combine to form bigger droplets. Large amounts of water droplets gather to form clouds.
Plants give out water vapour through their leaves.
The Sun's heat causes water to evaporate. Water changes into water vapour.
A sequence of processes that occur to ensure that water is naturally replenished on the Earth.
What Is a Water Budget?
Water Budget in a Catchment
When input is more than output, more water is received than lost, and the catchment is likely to have more than enough water available.
When output is more than input, more water is lost than received, and the catchment is likely to have less water available than is enough.
Tells us how much water is available in an area.
A water budget equation describes the flow of water in and out of a catchment area.