SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISTION THEORIES, ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (…
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISTION THEORIES
B. F. SKINNER
PAVLOV discovered Classical Conditioning
B.F. Skinner discovered Operant Conditioning (if a reward or reinforcement follows the response or stimulus then the response becomes more likely in the future).
B.F. Skinner and Watson applied Operant Conditioning for language learning.
IN A NUTSHELL
Language is an activity a child acquires with external force; child learns whatever his environment teaches him.
Language learning is not a unique process. All humans go through the same stages of language acquisition.
Language learning is habit formation and shaped by conditioned behavior
A learner’s mind is a blank slate
It doesn’t account for free will and internal influences (character, mood, mind).
It doesn’t account other types of learning
The Operant Conditioning was only successfully implemented in non-human animals.
It doesn’t explain why children can recognize pattern in language (e.g saying “foots” instead of “feet)
It sees humans as robot, i.e. it will give response if it’s given stimulus
if children are general imitators, why don't they imitate their parents' habit of sitting quietly on airplanes?
IN A NUTSHELL
There are certain sets of structural rules are innate to humans, independent of sensory experience
Pre-Nomsky, there had been an idea of a universal grammar as far back as 1245, that all languages are built upon a common grammar.
1268 Greek Grammar
13th century Speculative Grammarians postulated universal rules underlying all grammars.
17th century Grammaire generale by Claude Lancelot and Antoine Arnauld
Roger Bacon’s 1245 Overview of Grammar
The presence of creole language (a language that develops from a mix of many different languages into a new one over a brief period of time; for example, slaves that spoke different languages will develop a creole).
Universal grammar has no coherent formulation and is indeed unnecessary.
Universal grammar is in conflict with biology: it cannot have evolved by standardly accepted neo-Darwinian evolutionary principles
There are no linguistic universals: universal grammar is refuted by abundant variation at all levels of linguistic organization, which lies at the heart of human faculty of language.
If human beings are brought up under normal conditions, then they will always develop language with certain properties (e.g. distinguishing function words from content words)
There is an innate, genetically determined language faculty that knows these rules, which makes children easier and faster in learning to speak.
All children have to learn is whether their language has the parameter value head-first, like in English, or head last like in Japanese.
IN A NUTSHELL
In teaching language, the whole being, emotional, and social need to be engaged in learning, not just the mind.
it reduced capacity for experimental research,
it lacks of methods for treating of different mental health problems
it causes disagreement on the basic humanist assumption of inherent human goodness
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Self Actualization : desire to become the most that one can be
Esteem: respect, self esteem, status, recognition, strength, freedom
Love and belonging: friendship, intimacy, family, sense of connection
safety needs: personal security, employment, resources, health , property
Physiological needs: air, water, food, shelter, sleep, clothing, reproduction
It will be very difficult to fulfill the higher order needs , if we don't have the lower orders needs fulfilled.
If the students don't have the physiological needs, they most likely will not be able to study properly
INPUT HYPOTHESIS/ MONITOR MODEL
There are two ways to develop the linguistic skills
It’s a natural, intuitive, and subconscious process of which individuals don’t need to be aware. When one acquires a new knowledge, one generally doesn’t realize.
Both adults and children can subconsciously acquire either oral or written language.
It requires meaningful interaction in the target language and the acquirer is focused on meaning rather that form
It’s a conscious process. New knowledge is presented consciously in the learner’s mind (e.g. language rules and grammar).
It involves formal instruction.
Instead of learning the language, students learn an abstract, conceptual model of a language (a theory about a language)
A learner’s learned system acts like a monitor to what they are producing i.e. the acquired system is able to produce spontaneous speech, the learned system is used to check what is being spoken
A learner internally scans utterance for error before she produces an utterance, using the learned system to make corrections.
The self-monitoring and self-correction are the only functions of conscious language learning
CONDITION TO USE MONITOR
The acquirer/learner must know the rule
The acquirer must be focused on correctness
The acquirer/learner must have time to use the monitor
Knowing the rule
Having time to use monitor; which causes the flow conversation
The rules of language make up only a small portion of our language competence.
The learners improve and progress along the natural order when they receive second language input that is one step beyond their current stage of linguistic competence.
Natural Communicative Input is the key to designing syllabus because not all learners can be at the same level of linguistic competence at the same time. This way, it will ensure each learner will receive some “i + 1” input that is appropriate for their stage of linguistic competence.
Talking is not practicing: speaking in the target language doesn’t result in language acquisition
When enough comprehensible input is provided, i + 1 is present: teachers need to provide enough comprehensible input so that the structures the acquirers are ready to learn will be present in that input.
The teaching order is not based on the natural order: students will acquire the language in a natural order by receiving comprehensible input.
Affective Filter hypothesis
Certain emotions, such as self-doubt, boredom, and anxiety interfere with the process of acquiring a second language.
The negative emotional responses function as a filter between the speaker and the listener that reduces the amount of language input the listener is able to understand; they prevent efficient processing of the language input.
However, it can be reduced by sparking interest, providing low-anxiety environments, and bolstering the learner’s self-esteem.
WAYS TO LOWER THE AFFECTIVE FILTER
Allowing for a silent period
Teachers need to be aware of the students’ home lives
teachers don’t need to add to the hurdles to jump over.
Natural Order hypothesis
All learners acquire a language in roughly the same order
This theory is proven in children acquiring first language; however, order of acquisition for second-language learners is much less consistent.
The sequence of acquisition studies of various Indo-European languages by Eliis, Learners begin by omitting pronouns or using them indiscriminately, then acquire a single pronoun feature, followed by number, and eventually by gender.
Studies on the word order acquisition in German show that most learners begin with a word order based on their native language.
the hypotheses are untestable
a degree of separation between acquisition and learning that has not been proven to exist.
1 more item...
1 more item...
1 more item...
1 more item...