"In informal cooperative learning, small, temporary, ad-hoc groups of two to four students work together for brief periods in a class, typically up to one class period, to answer questions or respond to prompts posed by the instructor" (Johnson, 2014).
The teacher asks a discussion question. Students are coached to think or write about an answer to the question before discussing to a peer to deliberate their responses. Groups then share their responses with the class (Brame & Biel, 2015).
In this approach, groups of students work in a team of four to develop experts on one section of new material, while other expert teams in the class work on other sections of new material (Brame & Biel, 2015).