Art and the Everyday in the 1960s - Coggle Diagram
Art and the Everyday in the 1960s
THE SITUATIONIST INTERNATIONAL
Paris-based artistic and political avant-garde group that formed in 1957
In 1955, Guy Debord defined
as "the study of the precise laws and specific effects of the geographical environment, consciously organized or not, on the emotions and behavior of individuals
Guy Debord, The
Naked City, 1957
Debord rearranged a tourist map of Paris by slicing its neighbourhoods and connecting them randomly. These itineraries expressed his concept of "drift" or "derive", where human trajectories are determined by chance.
Asger Jorn, The Avant-Garde
Doesn't Give Up, 1962
In the overpainting Jorn puts a mustache and a goatee on her as Marcel Duchamp had done with the Mona Lisa in 1919, it’s negation of art, now taken as art, should be negated in turn.
found flea-market canvases overlain with childlike doodles and gestural marks, it is a vulgarized portrait of a young girl, redolent of Biedermeier kitsch, to which Jorn has added slightly menacing stick figures and, in a pastiche of Duchamp, a moustache.
Dada heritage: The rejection of the hierarchic structure of the culture: there is no high and low art
Every detail loses its autonomous meaning but the assemblage receives the new one
Guy Debord, The Society of the
The book promoted
reaction to everyday commodities
freedom from work
free and transparent information
valorization of spontaneity and play
realization of creative potential
a new beauty can only be a beauty of situations, and never a beauty of readymade forms
Central to their theory was the idea of the Spectacle
Situationists argued that western society had progressed into a stage of advanced capitalism. In this stage, life was no longer about the accumulation of commodities but the accumulation of the illusion of commodities.
ASSEMBLAGE IN USA
– BASIC TRAITS
Combination of three-dimensional elements.
Found objects and materials.
Major figures: Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns
Robert Rauschenberg, Charlene, 1954
prime example of his “combine” paintings. A combine is composed of various materials and employs several techniques. For example, in this piece Rauschenberg included an electric light, a mirror, a flattened umbrella, a t-shirt and reproductions of well-known artworks. He also incorporated newspapers, magazines and comic books in the center and left hand panels.
The space in which Charlene hangs has a great impact on the piece. First, the large mirror reflects the area surrounding the painting and second, the wall behind the painting is visible through a cut out to the left of the umbrella.
On his use of objects from the real world Rauschenberg said, “I don’t want a painting to look like something it isn’t, I want it to look like something it is.”
Robert Rauschenberg, Bed, 1955
Retroactive II, 1963
In the silkscreen process, he creates an inventory bank for himself of about 150 silkscreens all drawn from popular media. And with this vocabulary, he mixes and recombines these images in a variety of ways. So it's almost as if Rauschenberg is thinking digitally even before he has digital technological capacities.
Jasper Johns, Flag, 1954–1955
Flag constitutes both a thing (a flag) and its representation (a painting of a flag). This built-in ambiguity is the work’s innovation as well as its provocation. He used wax, pigments, newspapers
Jasper Johns, Target with
Four Faces, 1955
Johns was really interested in trying to imagine a new set of possibilities for painting, and did so by playing with the subject matter, by creating paintings that at first glance, don't look any different than the actual objects that they represent.
If you look closely at the Target, you can see the newsprint that he used to collage on the canvas as a bottom layer. The method of wax encaustic allowed him to really build up a tactile surface that reveals the slow and measured process by which the work was made.
The faces were cast over the course of several months. He used a friend and neighbor as a model. The faces are abstracted by their having been cropped at the eyes. They become a kind of banner above the target.
BRITISH POP ART
Eduardo Paolozzi, I Was a
Rich Man Plaything, 1947
show his fascination with popular culture and technology, as well as with the glamour of American consumerism.
Exposition in London "This is tomorrow
Richard Hamilton, Just What Makes Today’s Homes so Different, so Appealing?, 1956
Archigram, Instant City. Urban Action Tune-Up, Collage, 1969
With Instant City, the architects developed the idea of a “traveling metropolis,” a package that temporarily infiltrates a community.
This audiovisual environment: mobile, technological objects, consuption of information
Instant City is precisely what its name implies: when it arrives on a site, it creates an event and then disappears
Instant City embodies the utopian vision of architecture freed from its foundations, of a flying and aerial city, which transforms architecture into a situation, into a reactive environment.
AMERICAN POP ART
Roy Lichtenstein, Hot Dog, 1963
Roy Lichtenstein, Whaam!, 1963
Roy Lichtenstein, White Brushstroke, 1965
James Rosenquist, President Elect, 1960
James Rosenquist, Marilyn
Monroe, I, 1962
By fragmenting Monroe’s image and combining her with another popular product, Rosenquist comments on how the late actress’s life and career had been co-opted and consumed by her superstar status.
James Rosenquist, F-111, 1965
Later, as a visual artist, Rosenquist drew inspiration from advertising and mass media. Many of his works are based on found images from magazines, collaged together and reproduced at a large scale, powerfully juxtaposing people, objects, visual symbols, visual texture, and text to create new and sometimes cryptic meanings.
Ed Ruscha, Noise, 1963
Ed Ruscha, Large Trademark with Eight Spotlights, 1962
Ed Ruscha, Standard Station, Amarillo, Texas, 1963
vibrant signature style of combining words, images, objects, and landscapes
Ed Ruscha, Every Building on Sunset Strip, artist’s book, 1966
Andy Warhol, Campbell’s Soup Cans Installation
Andy Warhol, Green
Coca Cola Bottles, 1962
The perfectly blank “machine-made” look of Warhol’s boxes contrasted sharply with the gestural brushstrokes of abstract expressionist paintings.
Andy Warhol, Thirteen Most Wanted Men, 1964
Thirteen Most Wanted Men was a large mural created by Andy Warhol for the New York State Pavilion at the 1964 World's Fair at Flushing Meadows, New York.