The word "lion" is transformed into its "female equivalent", the "lioness", through the affixation of "-ess". By adding the suffix "-dom"' to "king", we produce a word that no longer describes the person but the area in which the king reigns. Also, the prefixes "dis-" and "un-"'' negate the base to which they are attached. However, the words remain within the same grammatical word category, i.e. a noun remains a noun, an adjective remains an adjective.