Chapter 25 Populations and Ecosystems - Coggle Diagram
Populations and Ecosystems
Plants in Relationship to Their Habitats
aspects of the habitat that affect a plant constitute. Whereas all components, whether with known effect or not, are its habitat.
is the set of conditions in which an organism completes its life cycle
nonliving and physical phenomena; climate, soil, latitude, altitude, and disturbances such as fires, floods, and avalanches.
composed of living factors, the plant itself, other plant species and species of animals, fungi, protists, and prokaryotes.
all of the populations together.
individuals of the same species together.
the low and high extremes of the organism.
first plants that invade new soil.
After many years soil can develope 3 layers called horizons**
uppermost layer. Sometimes called "zone of leaching"
consists of litter, and debris.
the following layer "zone of decomposition" area where materials from the A horizon accumulate.
next layer below composed of mostly of parent rock and rock fragments.
community, constructed by physical, nonliving, environment.
specialized in response to particular ecosystem factors.
plants are extracted from the original site and transplanted elsewhere where they can grow together.
garden where plants from multiple locations are grown together.
interaction is basically beneficial for both organisms.
situation in which two populations do not grow as well together as they do separately because they use the same limited resources,
states that whichever species is less adapted is excluded from the ecosystem by superior competitors.
no other species better adapted for a set of conditions.
a relationship in which one species benefits and the other is harmed.
Animals that eat plants.
the process of eating plants.
eating twigs and leaves
one species benefits and the other is unaffected.
The Structure of Populations
The factor that determines the health of the plant.
used whenever there is no obvious identifiable pattern to the position of individuals.
the spacing between plants is either small or large, but rarely average.
all individuals are evenly spaced from their neighbors.
release of chemicals from a plant that inhibit other plants.
inhibition of plants from allelochemicals.
proportions of young, middle-aged, and old individuals.
different ages that make up age distribution.
Factors that affect rate of population growth
1) Generation time
the length of time from the birth of one individual until the birth of its first offspring
2) Intrinsic rate of natural increase (Biotic potential)
is the number of offspring produced by an individual that actually live long enough to reproduce under ideal conditions.
the number of individuals that can live in a particular area
species that are typically annuals, due to habitat crowding and becoming unsuitable.
Species of a habitat close to carrying capacity.
The Structure of Ecosystems
physical and shape of the organisms and their distribution in relation to each other and to the physical environment.
means by which a plant survives stressful seasons.
refers to the number and diversity of species that coexist in an ecosystem, depending on if the climate is mild or stressful, soil being rich or poor, species tolerance ranges being broad or narrow.
the changes that an ecosystem undergoes with time.
can be classified as feeding levels.
first step of any food web. The energy and nutrient supply for herbivores.
which are herbivores
omnivores, prey on herbivores, existing at both trophic levels.
ex:fungi. break down the remains of all types of organisms including other decomposers.
after plants are eaten their energy and carbon compounds move to the herbivore trophic level. then to the carnivore level and finally to the decomposer trophic level.
passed down the same trophic levels as the energy flow. Except much of the food is used in respiration. Therefore creating ATP, carbon dioxide, and water.