:silhouettes:THE ORGANIZATIONS (Scott) :silhouettes:, image, image, image…
THE ORGANIZATIONS (Scott)
HISTORY AND EVOLUTION
Organizations have existed since the ancient great civilizations such as Chinese, Indian or Greek, being a union of people or groups of people who sought to achieve the same goal, from this origin I want to comment on how organizations evolved in the world and its development and study in the United States throughout the 20th century
IN THE WORLD
REVOLUTION OF ORGANIZATIONS
Scott in his text refers to a revolution of organizations that he identifies as a silent and imperceptible revolution.The expansion of public bureaucracies in all areas and the displacement of the family business by the corporation led to what is known as a change in social structure
As we have mentioned, it is believed that the origin of organizations was already present since the great ancient civilizations, and in fact their constitution continued to be handled in very similar ways until theeconomic espansion cuaed by the industrial revolution (1760) where companies as we know them would be established.
DEVELOPMENT IN U.S.A (CENTURY XX)
The U.S. Bureau of the Census launched a Standard Statistical Establishment List for all businesses, distinguishing between an establishment-an economic unit at a single location-and a firm or company-a business organization consisting of one or more domestic establishments under common ownership, that was the first attemp for have control of the organizaion in U.S.A
The United States, like many other countries, did not bother to keep a record of the organizations in their country, they managed and monitored the movements of the dollar, but nothing that defined or regulated the organizations, so from 1980 to 1997 several strategies were implemented.
In this year a organizational study group do the first attempt to create a representative national survey of all work settings in the United States.
Because they do not have a complete census of organizations existed, they began by drawing a random sample of adults in the United States who were asked to identify their principal employers
As a second step, data were gathered by telephone, from informants in the organizations named as employers, regarding selected features of each ofthese employment settings, in particular, human resources practices.
This procedure resulted in a random sample of employment organizations (establishments), weighted by size of organization.
Their results let them know indicate that, as of 1991, 61 percent of respondents were employed in private sector establishments, 27 percent in the public sector, and 7 percent in the nonprofit sector
The U.S. Census Bureau maks a report in which they exposing the existence of "more than 5.3 million single-establishment companies and about 210,000 multi-unit forms representing another 1.6 million establishments, for a total of 6.9 million establishments and 5.5 million firms"(Knoke, 2001: 77)
¿WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION?
Organizations are administrative structures and systems created in order to achieve goals or objectives that are consolidated under the work of a certain group of people.
ORGANIZATIONS IN MODERN SOCIETY
In modern society, organizations are not only constituted based on the idea of achieving objectives and goals, they have also become regulators of the collective life of people
DIFFERENT TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONS
Based on the current constitution of the different types of organizations, we classify these in; influential organizations, social organizations, economic organizations
These are organizations completely destined for the social sector, more associated with the social development of a community
Child and adult socialization
Preservation of culture
Organizations that due to their influence and great activity in today's society, can directly influence the way of thinking and acting of a large part of the population.
Organizations that are intended solely for the economic growth of a community or of different groups of people
Productionand distribution of goods
Provision of services
protection of personal and financial security
PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIAL ANALYSIS
With the growing presence of organizations in the world, they were linked to social and psyhcological factors, which became part of the lives of many people without this an indicator that demonstrates their importance.
Organizational update of Marxist theory
Ralf Dahrendorf - Germany
It is argued that the class structure was no longer the property of the means of production, but the possibility of participation in positions that allowed the exercise of organizational authority.
POLITICAL - SOCIAL IMPACT OF AN ORGANIZATION
When an administrative group exists with the apparent intention of supporting leaders in their functions, they often deviate and put their own interests first.
In relation to the idea that organizations govern our life, they do not do so only in our behavior, a single person cannot oppose an organization or question it, because it has more power and authority over people than it should.
GENDER DISCRIMINATION BY ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
In the text, Ferguson criticizes how formal organizations have a gender bias in aspects such as appointment and promotion criteria and fundamentally in the choice of criteria and what this implies
PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATIONS
stunting of normal personality development
CRITICS OF ORGANIZATIONS
Given the importance and power that organizations have today, there are many things that are criticized about these, among which are:
They are alleged to be rule bound
Take advantage oftheir size and resulting power to exploit others.
ORGANIZATIONS AS LIFE PLANNERS
The most decisive situation for today's society in relation to organizations is the way they exercise, systematically in areas of our lives, so that they control to some extent the way in which society is arranged.
Scott, w. R. (2003). Organizations Rational, Natural, and Open Systems. En w. R. Scott, The subject is organizations (págs. 3 - 29). Standford: Prentice Hall.
ANALYSIS ORGANIZATIONAL & STRUCTURAL
It is that analysis of organizations that focuses on the structural processes that are characteristic of an organization, seeking above all to explain the structural characteristics and social processes that characterize organizations and their subdivisions.
This section refers to the organizational analysis that takes into account the structure or way in which organizations are built.
The participants are those individuals who, in return for a variety ofinducements, make contributions to the organization
It could be said that the goals are essential for the understanding of the organizations, because in these their purpose is understood
Technology refers to the organization as a place where some type of work is done, as a place where the transformation of materials occurs, as a mechanism to transform inputs into products
The social structure refers to the patterned or regularized aspects of the relationships existing among participants in an organization We can define this in three components.
We can define it as the set of practical rules, whose purpose is to regulate the behavior of people within an organization
Are the criteria employed in selecting the goals of behavior
Are the generalized rules governing behavior that specify, in particular, appropriate means for pursuing goals
are expectations for or evaluative standards employed in assessing the behavior of occupants ofspecific social positions.
CULTURAL - COGNITIVE STRUCTURE
the beliefs and understandings that participants share about the nature of their situation and interests.
This component focuses on actual behavior rather than on normative prescriptions or cognitive patterns guiding behavior.
It is the level of analysis that allows a researcher to examine and determine what kind of relationships an organization may have with another group of organizations or with the environment.
RELATIONS WITH THE ENVIRONMENT
In the environmental analysis, it is possible to study and determine certain types of strategies that, by relating to the environment, improve the benefits of the organization
Well use of resources
RELATIONS WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
Within the study of the environment, the possibilities of generating associations or relationships with other organizations to mutually benefit are generally evaluated.
NON-VIABILITY TO A RELATION
In ecological analysis, there is a situation that occurs very rarely where, when studying the environment, effective ways are not found for the organization to generate, not due to the negligence of the researcher, but by agents that the organization cannot regulate.
Bad politic situation
Fall of the economy
unsustainable environmental situation