5 ways of classifying research - Coggle Diagram
5 ways of classifying research
Nature of data
A quality is more subjective
Data comes from field research and case studies
conclusions are drawn from statistics and generalized to populations of interest
Time dimension of research
observations can either be at more or less one point (Cross sectional designs) or over a longer period of time (longitudinal design
cross sectional: single point in time
longitudinal study: involves multiple observations made over time
trend studies: examine changes within the general population over time
panel studies: follow the same group, organization, peoples over multiple time periods
cohort studies: just like a panel study expect individuals share a common experience.
purpose of research
Describes the scope of the study
want to know the problems frequency, prevalence, degree and scope.
find a cause anserwer why?
why hav we seen a certain change in scope
Answers the question WHAT?
Little to none prior reasearch
Unit of analysis
The what or whom being studied in a research project
Individuals: college students, gang mambers, team players.
Groups: police beats, households, city blocks, cities, counties
community: prisons, police departments, buisnesses
social artifacts: products of social beings and their behavior (stories in newspapers, pictures from a crime scene, internet post, indecent reports)
1) ecological fallacy: making assertions about individuals based on the examination of groups
2) Reductionism: using individual evidence to predict how a group might behave
Methods of reasoning
moves from specific to general
from a set of observations to the discovery of a pattern among them, to a hypothesis and eventually to a theory
moves from general to more spefifc