The management of organaizational Justice - Coggle Diagram
The management of organaizational Justice
What is organizational justice?
"Members sense of moral propriety of how they are treated- the "glue" that allows people to work together effectively. . Justice defines the very essence of individuals’ relationship to employers. In contrast, injustice is like a corrosive solvent that can dissolve bonds within the community. Injustice is hurtful to individuals and harmful to organizations."
The managerial scientists discussions differ from the philosophers through being more concerned with what people BELIEVE TO BE JUST rather than what is just. The fact that this is a personal judgement it is very subjective and thus may fall short.
Employees care about justice
Often managers assume that justice in h the minds of employees means only that they receive desirable outcomes. Confusing outcome of favorability with justice.
3 reasons why people care about justice
Long-range benefits - people often go to a job for the long term, thus need to estimate how they will be treated over this period. According to the control model, employees prefer justice as it allows them to predict and control outcomes they are likely to receive. The control model proposes that people are often motivated by economic and quasi-economic interests. When people win from cheating they have a feeling of guilt, showing individuals can recognize injustice even if it is benefitting them
Social considerations - People wish to be accepted and valued by important people and not exploited by the powerful decision makers. Group value model tells us that we are respected and esteemed by the larger group. The more we care about an employer the more distressed we become when we are unfairly treated. Group of employees experiments just before layoff, showed most committed people responded most negatively.
Ethical consideration - Also care about justice as they believe it is the morally appropriate way others should be treated. When people witness unethical events they are likely to act in the hopes of retribution.
3 components of justice
allocations of outcomes that some gte and some do not. Not all workers are treated alike. Concerned with whether or not they received their just share. **
Equity theory - just distribution involved "something proportionate". O1 / I1 = O2 / I2. O = outcomes. I = inputs. According to this theory we are concerned with how much we get related to how much we input. Helps us understand that someone who is paid less may still be satisfied as long as they contribute les as well.
According to this theory when someone is over-rewarded then one must work harder for the equation to work. These effects were observed when people moved to higher state offices, higher salary, caused a boost in performance.
If a person is looking for individual rewards they will go towards equity, if they are looking for more team rewards equality. Organizations can balance equity and equality by mixing them together, providing members a basic minimum benefit. However above this can be useful to reward based on performance. Better to allocate some things equitably and some equally eg like money, allocate equitably and allocate parking spaces equally.
Means by which outcomes are allocated but not specifically to the outcomes themselves. "establishes certain principles specifying and governing the roles of participants within the decision-making processes."
Fair processes lead to intellectual and emotional recognition. Reported that when managers believed that their headquarters used a more fair process it meant they were more supportive of the plan, trusted the leaders more and were more committed to their employees.
Seems to be essential in providing legitimacy.
Refers to how one person treats another. Someone can be interactionally just if he/she appropriately shares info and avoids rule/cruel remarks.
Informational justice - refers to whether one is truthful and provides adequate justifications when things go badly. 2nd Part - interpersonal justice refers to the respect and dignity with which one treats another.
Research shows that the 3 components interact, distributive and procedural injustice will have fewer negative effects if interactional jjustice is high.
Impacts of organizational justice
Builds trust and commitment - justice and comittement ratio between .37 and .43. and just procedures and trust around 0.6
Justice improves job performance
Justice fosters organizational behaviours (OCBs) employee behaviours which go beyond the call of duty
justice builds customer satisfaction and loyalty.
For most job candidates the recruiting and selection process is their first introduction of an organization.
Two sets of concerns in terms of procedural justice -
appropriate questions and criteria are critical for procedural justice. interview questions and screening tests to be related to the job. overly personal interviews are often seen as inappropriate.
Adequate opportunity to perform during the selection process means giving job candidates the chances to make a case for themselves.
However, when these two are compared with recommended hiring practices managers are often faced with a justice paradox. Many of the selection procedures with highest predictable validity don't satisfy these concerns. eg - personality tests
how to manage?
Work sample tests and performance-based simulations demonstrate reasonable predictive validity and are also seen as procedurally just.
modify existing screening tools to increase job applicants procedural justice. Ability tests with concrete rather than abstract items tend to be viewed more positively.
There is evidence that injustice can provoke retaliation, lower performance and harm morale. Justice provides business opportunities from reaping specific returns such as stronger employee commitment to gaining an overall tough-to-gopu competitive edge.
Reward systems - justly balancing multiple goals. Need to motivate individual performance and need to maintain group cohesion. Distributive justice tells that it is difficult to accomplish both together.