Chapter 25: Populations and Ecosystems - Coggle Diagram
Chapter 25: Populations and Ecosystems
Group of individuals of same species exists in same habitat
All population together
Community of interacting organisms and their physical envirinment.
Plant in relationships to their habitat
set of conditions in which an organism completes its life cycle.
Types of habitats:
Non living and are physical phenomena
Components of climate
Formed by break down of rock
Pioneers: the first plant that invade a new soil
Horizon: zone of leaching
B horizon: zone of deposition
C horizon: copmposed of mostly of parent rock and rock fragment.
Latitude and altitude
The amount of light energy strikes the earth's surface is varies with latitude and altitude
Phenomena such as fires, landslides, snow and flood
can produce a significiance, often radical change in an ecosystem
Can modify a habitat just being in a habitat
Other plant species
mutualism: If the interaction between the species is benefical for both.
Competition: If the interaction is not beneficial for atleast one of the species
Competitive exclusion: Whichever species is less adapted is excluded from the ecosystem by superior competitors.
Ecotypes: a distinct form or race of a plant or animal species occupying a particular habitat.
To test whether ecotype really exist, transplant experiments are performed.
Organism other than plants
Animals, fungi and prokaryotes
Commensal relationships: One species benefits and the other is unaffected
Predation: one species benefits and the other is harmed.
Herbivores: Animals that eat plant and process is called herbivory.
Pathogenic: Fungi and bacteria, harmful to plants
The structure of populations
Age distribution Demography
Factors affect the possible rate of population growth
Generation time: the length of time from bith of one individual until the birtj of its first offspring, affect the rapidity of population growth.
Intrinsic rate of natural increases: Number of offspring produced by an individual that actually live ling enough to reproduce under ideal condition.
Carrrying capacity: the number of individual in each population that can live in a particular ecosystem which is limited.
R and k-selection
R- selection: Selection occuring when a population is far below the carrying capacity of an unstable environment.
K-selection: produce offspring that each has higher probability of survival to maturity.
Local geographic distribution
Random distribution: no obivious, identifiable pattern to the position of individuals.
Clumped distribution: Spacing between plants is either small or large, but rarely average.
Uniform distributions: All individual are evenly spaced from their neighbors
Boundaries of the geographic Range
Limiting factors: Any things that constarins a population's size and slows or stops it from growing
The ability of species to spread throughtout the geographic area is a result of adaptation in biotic and abiotic components
The structure of ecosystem
The change that an ecosystem undergoes with time.
Refers to the number and diversity of species that coexist in an ecosystem and it depends on wether the climate is mild or stressful, the soil is rich or poor and the species tolerance ranges are broad or narrow.
The physical size and shape of the organisms and their distribution in relation to each other and to the physical environment.
Life forms: The structure, form, habitats and life history of an organism.
Primary producers: Autotrophs; First step of food web
Primary consumers: sometimes called as secondary producer
Secondary consumers: small herbivores like insects, mice and squirrels.
tertiary consumer: top carnivores such as tiger, wolves
Decomposer: fungi and bacteria break down the remains of all types of organism, even those of other decomposer.