Chapter 18 Classification and Systematics - Coggle Diagram
Classification and Systematics
Hereditary relationships of any group of organisms.
the attempt of understanding each evolutionary lines and to have a system of understanding.
Natural System of Classification
system where closely related organisms are classified together and assigning plant names on the basis of phylogenetic relationships.
name that reflect relationships accurately.
(nomenclature) created by Carolus Linnaeus
Levels of Taxonomic Categories
most fundamental level of classification. Individuals who are closely related by descent from a common ancestor.
Binomial System of Nomenclature
System of using paragraphs to describe organisms before nomenclature.**
Inheritance of acquired characteristics
incorrect idea that all cells of the body produce fluids that diffused to the genitalia where the fluids were concentrated and formed into sperm or egg cells.
the word that distinguishes this species from the other species of the genus
(Singular) closely related species.
that all of the species included in the genus are related each other by
a common ancestor, and that all descendants of that common ancestor are in same genus.
members have evolved from different ancestors and may resemble each other only as a result of convergent evolution.
level above genus. Which is composed of one, several, or many genera.
Levels of family
names ending in
names that end in
names that end in
do not have certain endings to indicate the classification level.
can be used to address any of the groups to the right.
method of analyzing phylogenetic evolutionary relationships.
Homoplasies (analogous features)
when natural selection favor mutations inn each line that result in similar phenotypes.
Synapomorphies (homologous features
features similar to each other because they have descended from a common ancestral feature.
a diagram that shows evolutionary patterns by means of series of branches.
each point at which cladogram branches**
place where descendants branch of from.
any ancestor and all the branches that lead from it.
Most Recent Common Ancestor
a natural monophyletic clade including the ancestors and all of the descendents.
does not contain all of the descendants of the most recent common ancestor.
useless in regards of understanding the phenology.
equally simplified but do have taxa arranged differently.
lack of enough data.therefore, causing the various species to arise from the same node.
early diverging clades.
remaining unnamed dicots.
shared ancestral condition that is also uninformative for arranging species.
the most simplified hypothesis.
a new species that contains two divergent branches.
where the descendants have undergone certain changes that were not present in the ancestor.
Other Types of Classification
Artificial Classification System
characters that are easy to observe are chosen as the basis of classification.
all fossils with the same basic form or structure.
single preserved plant that truly carries the name.
isolation of specimen to prevent recurring disaster.
The Major Lines of Evolution*
classification based on derived characters.
simple plants with neither seeds or vascular tissue.