Phonetics vs. Phonology - Differences and Characteristics, References and…
Phonetics vs. Phonology - Differences and Characteristics
Deals with the production of speech sounds by humans, often without prior knowledge of the language being spoken. It is the science concerned with the study of the sound system in the human language in general.
It is divided in three general branches:
Describes in detail how the speech organs, also calledvocal organs or articulators. In the vocal tract, are usedin order to produce, or articulate, (specific) speech sounds.
studies the physical properties of speech sounds, i.e. the way in which the air vibrates assounds pass from speaker to listener.
Investigates the perception of speech sounds by the listener, i.e. how thesounds are transmitted from the ear to the brain, and how they are processed.
It is about patterns of sounds, especially different patterns of sounds in different languages, or within each language, different patterns of sounds in different positions in words etc. It is the science concerned with the study of the sound system.
It is divided in two general branches:
It is based on the segmentation of language into individualspeech sounds provided by phonetics. Unlike phonetics, however, segmental phonol-ogy is not interested in the production, the physical properties, or the perception ofthese sounds, but in the function and possible combinations of sounds within thesound system.
It is also calledprosody, is concerned withthose features of pronunciation that cannot be segmented because they extend overmore than one segment, or sound. Such features include stress [Betonung], rhythm, andintonation (also called pitch contour or pitch movement).
Both subjects are working together at the time we produce the sounds of any letter. The device of the human speech apparatus is made up, in overall by the respiratory apparatus, which includes:
The device of the human speech apparatus
Phonemes are directly related and envolved by the way we articulate the moutn, tongue and trachea at the time we are speaking or pronouncing a word or letter. They have different names depending the type of articulation we use.
Thorough closure of the mouth followd by a total opening of the mouth
Tigh passage of the aire through the mount
When the tongue is in contact with teeth
The apex makes brief occlusions, separated by small vocalization elements
Blended way that starts with an occlusion and ends with a fricative opening (tighly)
The air passes through the mouth or/and noses only when pronouncing
References and sugested materials:
Lass, R. (1984) Phonology: an introduction to basic concepts. Cambridge University Press.
LinguaLinks Library. Version 5.0 published on CD-ROM by SIL International, 2003.