Turmeric (Curcuma longa) - Coggle Diagram
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
"Therapeutic Potential of Turmeric in Alzheimer's Disease: Curcumin or Curcuminoids?"
asthma, epilepsy, gallstones, cramps, high cholesterol, congestion, runny nose, cough, sinusitis, liver disorders, anorexia, rheumatism, diabetic wounds, alzheimer's disease
"Turmeric: A spice with multifunctional medicinal properties"
responsible for most of the turmeric activities
Various useful properties
with antioxidant activities
inflammation, ulcer, and cancer
antifungal, antimicrobial, renal, and hepatoprotective activities
"Traditional Indian spices and their health significance"
physiological and pharmacological properties
wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic.
It delays induced cataract in diabetes
reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats
"Potential Anticancer Activity of Turmeric (Curcuma Longa)"
using tissue culture methods
using Dalton's lymphoma cells grown as ascites form
inhibited the cell growth in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells at a concentration of 0.4 mg/ml
cytotoxic to lymphocytes and Dalton’s lymphoma cells
Mixed with purple cabbage, coffee, blueberry
dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)
Ultrasonic extraction method
absorbance of cocktail dyes
"Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activity of the Turmeric Essential Oil"
GC-MS and GC-FID spectrometry
determined using DPPH assay just after adding DPPH radical and after 20 min, 30 min and 45 min incubation with radical.
incubated for 45 minutes with DPPH radical
determined using a disc- diffusion method
best antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans.
0.3 cm3/ 100 g plant material
Eight compounds were identified
turmeric essential oil is an extremely strong antioxidant and antimicrobial (antifungal) agent
potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industries as a safer alternative to the synthetic antioxidants and antimicrobial agents
complex mixtures of secondary plant metabolites
2 major classes of secondary metabolites
phenolic curcuminoids and essential oil
activity of en- dogenous and exogenous secretory plant tissues.
"Chemical Composition and Product Quality Control of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)"
primarily phenolic compounds and terpenoids
22 diarylheptanoids and diarylpentanoids
accumulated in rhizomes
8 phenylpropene and other phenolic compounds
14 other compounds
India-largest producer turmeric supplying over 90%
110 species of Cuecuma L.
20 species - phytochemically studied
horizontal underground plant stem that is capable of producing the shoot and root systems of a new plant
belongs to Zingiberaceae family
increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit anti-oxidative potential in animals
mpact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions.
"The Anti-oxidant Activity of Turmeric"
Turmeric anti-oxidant protein (TAP)
heat stable protein
trypsin treatment abolished the anti-oxidant activity
had an absorbancemaximum at 280 nm.
TAP effectivelypreventsCa2+-ATPasefrom in- activation
preventsthe depletion of cellular -SH content during peroxidation
anti- oxidantactivitymaybemediatedthroughthepro- tection of the -SH group of the enzyme
Planting and Harvesting
"Effect of Method of planting and harvesting time on growth, yield, and quality of turmeric"
Planting --> Flat and ridge planting
diff. plnting methods had no infleunce on the:
and weight of mother, primary and secondary rhizomes
number of green leaves plant
flat method of planting
plants taller during 2003-04
no signi. diff. during 2004-05
Harvesting --> 10 Nov. - 12 March.
12 March - produced max. fresh rhizome
28.94 t ha-1 (mean yield)
Oil + curcumin content also increased with delay in harvesting
diff. harvesting dates
no signi. effect on plant
Turmeric cultivation in India occupies 60% of the total area intended for spices and condiments.
highly cultivated Asian spice and used in countries like India, China, Malaysia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Taiwan, Haiti, Jamaica and El-Salvador.
"Optimal Planting Depth for Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) Cultivation in Dark Red Soil in Okinawa Island, Southern Japan"
dark red soil
Okinawa - best area for growing turmeric
Turmeric planted at 8, 12, 16 cm grew earlier
more evenly than that planted at a shallower depth in both glasshouse and field experiments
plant root crop at proper planting depth
obtain a higher yield
soil type, bulk density, soil ecological factors
affect growth and development of rhizomes and tubers
"Soil quality assessment of some turmeric growing areas in relation to root-knot Nematodes status of Nizamabad district of Telangana"
28 surface soil samples for 7 turmeric
well developed structural variation
exhibited granular to sub angular blocky structures
varied from loam to clay
18.2 to 71.4, 4.4 to 18.7 and 20 to 68.2, per cent respectively
sand, silt, and clay content ranges
studied for physico-chemical properties
climate - semi arid and monsoonic
nearly level to gently undulating slopes
granular to sub angular blocky structure
Ethnobotany of Turmeric
religious importance and medicine from ancient times
many taxa of economic, medicinal, ornamental and cultural importance
India is largest producer of turmeric
Andhra Pradesh - maximum area under turmeric
Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Karnataka, Kerala
followed by Andhra Pradesh
identification of 6 different varieties in India
based characterization and evaluation on 568 turmeric collection
aromatherapy and in the perfume industry
Origin and Domestication
Sakthi Worship, worship of the divine mother, goddess by the pre-Aryans
first believed to have begun by
spread from SE Asia to nearby areas in Indochina, China, Japan, other South Pacific Islands
intro. to Caribbean Islands + Central America = recent
dye in weaving industry = common in the past
replaced by synthetic dyes
Social and Religion Uses :star:
purity in Hindu culture
Lord Shiva and Parvati
idols are bathed after applying turmeric paste
used various in day to day ceremonies
from birth to death
paste is used on babies
Goddess of gold luck (Laxmi)
used during last day of menstrual cycle
Krishna Kedara in Oriya Language
Uses in folk and Classical Art Forms
used in primitive art forms
used in decorating of masks
various costumes for folklore art forms
Kalamezhuthu paathu and Vettekkaren pattu
rice + turmeric - offered to gods
to be blessed with children
"Phytochemical and Pharmacological Importance of Turmeric (Curcuma longa): A Review"
indian turmeric-high curcumin content
rhizomes - horizontal underground stems
Turmeric constitutes of fat-soluble, polyphenolic pigments
non-nutritive plant chemical
possesses disease preventive properties
high nutritive and medicinal plant
Rhizome: Purifies blood, used as tonic to brain and heart
used to treat leucoderma
piles, bronchitis, asthma, tumours, TB glands on the neck, enlargement of spleen
to check leucorrhal and gonorrhoeal discharge
"Reduced-Hangover Alcoholic Beverage Comprising Turmeric"
before and after heavy drinking
turmeric can be directly added to drinks w/o altering the taste
"TURMERIC: THE GOLDEN SPICE OF LIFE"
‘Golden Spice of India’
medicinal purposes for centuries
biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism and sinusitis
nearly 4000 years to the Vedic culture in India
India is the largest producer of turmeric
wide spectrum of biological actions
anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anticoagulant, antifertility, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, anti-fibrotic, anti-venom, antiulcer, hypotensive and hypocholesteremic activities.
native of South-East Asia
hina, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma (Myanmar), Nigeria, Australia, West Indies, Peru, Jamaica
ome other Caribbean and Latin American countries
Chemical Composition of Turmeric
protein (6.3%), fat (5.1%), minerals (3.5%), carbohydrates (69.4%) and moisture (23.1%)
The essential oil (5-8%)
α-phellanderene (1%), sabiene (0.6%), cineol (1%), borneol (0.5%),
5 zingiberene (25%) and sesquiterpines (53%)