Chapter 4 Language and Educational Policy Mindmap by Sharon Y. Jiang,…
Chapter 4 Language and Educational Policy Mindmap by Sharon Y. Jiang
Language minorities have the right to teach their children their home language through private language classes. (The courts play a significant role in the development of policy for ELLs.
Schools can not ignore the linguistic and academic needs of ELLs.
Program for ELLs must be based on sound educational theory.
ELL programs must be provided with adequate resources and properly trained teachers.
Programs must be evaluated to ensure that they are sufficient in meeting student needs.
With a strong understanding of history and the limitations of and potential opportunities provided by current language and education policies, teachers can effectively work with their districts and schools to develop their own language policies and procedures to ensure that their ELL programs comply with all federal and state policies and meet the needs of the students and communities they serve.
(Corson 2001) Three Policy principals are necessary.
Children have the right to be educated in their home language.
If the 1st principle cannot be met, children have the right to attend a school that respect and values their home language.
Children have the right to learn the standard language variety to the highest level of proficiency possible.
The United States has a long history of bilingual education
Direct federal involvement in the education of ELLs essentially began with the passage of Title VII Bilingual Education Act of 1968.
More than 30 years of federal funding and support for bilingual education came to an abrupt end in2001 with the NCLB, which focused exclusively on English.
While bilingual education was still allowed under NCLB and ESSA, whatever ELL programs districts choose to offer, they must ensure that ELLs learn English as quickly as possible.
ESSA in 2015 is affording states new opportunities for greater flexibility in teaching and assessing ELLs. States have the ability to establish more reasonable expectations for ELLs in school accountability programs.
But concerns remain about the continued focus on accountability through high-stakes testing.
Since 2002, state education policies have been driven largely by federal policy and greatly influenced by state involvement/lack of involvement in the various standards and assessment consortia.
Bilingual education remains a viable option, despite restrictions resulting from voter initiatives in a few states in the late 1990s and early 2000s.
The reversal of these propositions in California and Massachusetts along with USDOE's recognition of the research base supportive of home language development and acknowledgement that bilingual programs meet ESSA's requirements for effective language instruction
Educational programs provides further evidence of the viability of bilingual education.
Chapter 5 Instructional Models and Programs Mindmap by Sharon Y. Jiang
What are the essential components of any instructional models and programs for ELLs?
Standards-based English as a second language
Pull-out English as a second language
In-class English as a second language
Standards-based content-area instruction
Home Language Instruction
The classroom teacher employs a variety of bilingual strategies and techniques involving the effective use of students' home language to increase their comprehension of English during ESL and sheltered-content instruction
Translanguaging pedagogy (Garcia Johnson & Seltzer(2016) FOUR purposes of translanguaging that work together to advance social justice
Supporting students as they engage with and comprehend complex content and texts
Providing opportunities for students to develop linguistic practices for academic contexts
Making space for students' bilingualism and ways of knowing
Supporting students' bilingual identities and socio-emotional development
What's the difference between English as a second language and sheltered instruction?
ESL: Teaching English to students who are not yet proficient in the language
Sheltered Instruction: Making content-area instruction comprehensible to ELLs in English while supporting their English language development
Concepts or Areas of Focus
ESL: 4 basic skills, vocabulary, communicative competence
Sheltered Instruction: English language arts, math, science,social studies, art, music,PE, and other content areas
ESL: English language proficiency standards
Sheltered Instruction: Content-area standards
ESL: Communicative competence for social and academic purposes
Content-area knowledge and skills
State English language proficiency assessment
Classroom-based formative & summative English language proficiency assessments
State academic achievement assessment
Summative content-area assessments
What are the pros and cons of various English-medium and bilingual education models and programs?
Cons: -1.Students miss out on instruction in their regular classrooms when they are pulled out.
-2. It may lead some GE elementary and secondary classroom teachers to the view that the ELLs are mainly the responsibility of the ESL teacher.
-3. Many students feel stigmatized about being pulled out day after day in front of their English-only peers.
-4. ESL instruction provided by the pull-out teacher typically is not coordinated with what the students are learning in their regular classrooms.
-5. Pull-out ESL teachers sometimes find that mainstream teachers are unwilling to collaborate.
+1.Pull-out ESL would have been a much better alternative for students who received no help at all.
+2. Students were more active, engaged and vocal during ESL time.
+3. ESL teachers create a safe environment that effectively lowered the affective filter of ELLs.
-6. Cost more (need to hire additional ELL teachers.
In-Class ESL Instruction/Model
+1. is preferred over the pull-out ESL model for several reasons.
Reason1: students do not miss anything in class
Reason2: Classroom teachers can coordinate their ESL instruction to prepare ELLs for specific sheltered content-area lessons.
Reason 3: Classroom teacher take full responsibility for the education of all their students
Reason4: Classroom teachers take what they learn about the ELLs through ESL instruction to help tailor their language and content objectives of their sheltered content-area instruction to appropriate levels
Reason5: Classroom teachers can coordinate interaction btw ELLs and non-ELLs in the classroom that will further assist ELLs in learning English.
The school save money by not having to hire additional teachers.
Sheltered English Immersion (SEI)Structured English immersion, typically refer to self-contained grade-level classrooms for ELLs with teachers who are trained and certified to provide language and content instruction to ELLs.
+1. All subjects taught in English through sheltered instruction.
+2. Bilingual strategies are used as needed during ESL and sheltered instrucition.
+3. More effective than pull-out ESL in isolation but not as effective as bilingual program models.
How can educators determine what type of program is appropriate for their context?
Teachers and administrators work collaboratively to study the characteristics and needs of the ELLs and other students, the desire of their parents and community, the resources of the school.
Questions listed in Box5.11(P122) can help start the conversation when teachers and administrators collaborate to develop the most appropriate program models and structures for the ELLs in their schools.
Co-teaching model enables mainstream, ESL,SEI, and bilingual teachers and specialists to work collaboratively to address ELL student needs.
Chapter 5 Instructional Models and Program Mindmap by Sharon Yan Jiang