Chapter 25: Populations & Ecosystems - Coggle Diagram
Chapter 25: Populations & Ecosystems
Population: idividuals of the same species
Community: all of the populations together
Ecosystem: The physical, non-living, and living organisms together.
Plants in Relationship to their Habitats
Habitat: set of conditions in which organism completes life cycle
Operational Habitat: affect plant habitat
Abiotic Habitat: habitat components
Tolerance Range: low-high extremes limits
Pioneers: first plants to invade new soil
A Horizon: uppermost zone of leaching
B Horizon: zone of deposition
C Horizon: composed mostly of Parent rock and fragments
Latitude & Altitude
Biotic Components of the Habitat
Plant Itself:modification to the habitat or part of it
Other Plant Species:Several individuals
Mutualism: interaction beneficial for both organisms
Competition: disadvatageous interaction for organisms
Competitive Exclusion: less adapted species is excluded from ecosystem by superior competitors
Niche: species is adapted to particular set of conditions
Ecotypes: specialized responses to particular ecosystem
Transplant Experiments: test whether ecotypes really exist
Organisms Other than Plants
Frugivores: seed dispersal by fruit-eating animals
Commensal Relaionship: one species benefits, other is unaffected
Predation:relationship where one species benefits, other is harmed
Browsing: eating twigs & leaves of shrubs.
Grazing: eating herbs
Pathogenic: interrelationships brown plants and fungi/bacteria
The Structure of Populations
Boundaries of the Geographic Range
Limiting Factor: a lone factor that determines the health of the plant.
Local Geographic Distribution
Random Distribution: no obvious, identifiable pattern to position of individuals
Clumped Distribution: those which spacing Btwn plants is small or large.
Uniform Distribution: all individuals are evenly spaced from their neighbors
Age Distribution: Demography
Age Distribution, demography: relative proportions of ages of the individuals
Generation Time: length of time from birth of individual until birth of first offspring
Intrinsic rate of natural increase/ biotic potential: # of offspring produced by an individual that live long enough to reproduce under ideal conditions.
Carrying Capacity: # of individuals in each population that can live in particular ecosystem
R- & K-selection
R-selected species: annuals or small shrubby perennials
K-selected species: long lived conifers( redwoods, Douglas Firs, & bristlecone pine) face intense competition
The Structure of Ecosystems
Physiognomic Structure: physical size & shape of the organisms and their distribution in relation to each other and the physical environment
Life Forms: Therophytes, Geophytes, Hemicryptphytes, chamaephytes, & phanerophytes.
Temporal structure: changes an ecosystem undergoes w/ time constitute
Species Composition: # & diversity of species that coexist in an ecosystem. Depends on climate, soil, and tolernance ranges.
Trophic Levels: feeding levels
Primary producers: 1st step in food web
Primary consumers: (secondary producers) herbivores, consume primary producers
Secondary consumers: carnivores that prey on small herbivores (primary consumers)
Tertiary Consumer: top carnivores
Decomposers: fungi & bacteria that break down remains of organisms.
Energy Flow: energy passing through the organisms passes thru herbivore trophic lvls
Carbon Flow: flow of carbon through trophic levels
Soil Seed Bank: dormant, living seeds located within soil constitute
Reductionist Thinking/ Reductionism: studying individual parts to understand a whole
Holistic Thinking/Emergentism: sum is > parts. Integrate all parts and their relationships.